New Mexico

state of the United States of America

New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México[Note 2][6] [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko] (audio speaker iconlisten); Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo Navajo pronunciation: [jòːtʰó hɑ̀hòːtsò]) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States. It also borders Texas to the east and southeast, Oklahoma to the northeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora to the south.

New Mexico
State of New Mexico
Estado de Nuevo México  (Spanish)
The Land of Enchantment
Crescit eundo (English: It grows as it goes)
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 6, 1912 (47th)
CapitalSanta Fe
Largest cityAlbuquerque
Largest metro and urban areasAlbuquerque Metropolitan Area
 • GovernorMichelle Lujan Grisham (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorHowie Morales (D)
LegislatureNew Mexico Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryNew Mexico Supreme Court
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation (list)
 • Total121,591[1] sq mi (314,915 km2)
 • Land121,298[1] sq mi (314,161 km2)
 • Water292[1] sq mi (757 km2)  0.24%
 • Rank5th
 • Length371 mi (596 km)
 • Width344 mi (552 km)
5,701 ft (1,741 m)
Highest elevation13,161 ft (4,011.4 m)
Lowest elevation2,845 ft (868 m)
 • Total2,117,522
 • Rank36th
 • Density17.2/sq mi (6.62/km2)
  • Rank45th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Demonym(s)New Mexican (Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano)[4]
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken languageEnglish, Spanish (New Mexican), Navajo, Keres, Zuni[5]
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NM
Traditional abbreviationN.M., N.Mex.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37°N
Longitude103° W to 109°3′ W

New Mexico became a state on January 6, 1912 and became the 47th state accepted into the United States. The state capital is Santa Fe. Most of the people live in the biggest city, Albuquerque.



The climate for most of the state is generally semi-arid. In the summer it can be very hot in southern New Mexico. The temperature is sometimes over 100 °F (37.8 °C) with lows over 70 °F (21.1 °C). It occasionally snows in the northern part of the state in the winter. It is drier in the southern portion of the state, and it rarely snows. New Mexico is usually affected by the North American monsoon from mid June to late September.



New Mexico is the long-time home of the Pueblo people, a group of Native Americans. The area was named Nuevo México (New Mexico) by the Spanish in the mid-1500s and officially settled in 1598, its capital Santa Fe was selected in 1610. In the late 1600s, the Pueblo people revolted against the Spanish. The Spanish returned twelve years later, and made a better attempt at giving the Pueblos better representation in New Mexico’s society and government. One such Spanish governor of New Mexico, that is most well known for his work with Native Americans, was named Tomás Vélez Cachupín.

When Mexico became independent in the early 1800s, New Mexico was part of it. Mexico wasn’t successful in representing the New Mexican people, which lead to another revolt called the Chimayo Rebellion.

In 1846, the United States and Mexico went to war over a border dispute in Texas (a former state of Mexico that, after being its own country for a time joined the US), and the United States won the war. The peace treaty the two countries signed gave what is now the American Southwest to the United States. While most of what was then Northern Mexico did not have a large amount of people living in it, New Mexico had population centers in Pueblo and Spanish towns, especially along the Rio Grande river and in the Sangre de Cristo mountains. The New Mexican citizens living there were allowed to stay if they agreed to become US Citizens; over 90% did.

After some time as a territory, the area became a state in 1912.



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "United States Summary: 2010 – Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2012. p. 41. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  2. "Wheeler". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  4. Neomexicano definition Archived June 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  5. "Most spoken languages in New Mexico in 2010". MLA Data Center. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  6. "México" in Diccionario panhispánico de dudas by Royal Spanish Academy and Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Madrid: Santillana. 2005. ISBN 978-8429406238.

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