Emperor Kameyama (亀山天皇, Kameyama-tennō) (9 July 1249 – 4 October 1305), was the 90th emperor of Japan, in the traditional order of succession. His reign started in 1259 and ended in 1274.
|Emperor of Japan|
|Born||9 July 1249|
|Died||4 October 1305 (aged 56)|
Kameyama no Misasagi (Kyoto)
Before he became the monarch, his personal name (imina) was Tsunehito-shinnō (恒仁親王). The posthumous name of Kameyama comes from the place name of the emperor's tomb, in a section of Kyoto.
He was the seventh son of Emperor Go-Saga and the younger brother of Emperor Go-Fukakusa.
Kameyama was the father of 36 children, including the son and heir who became Emperor Go-Uda.
Events of Kameyama's lifeEdit
- 1258 (Shōka 2): Kameyama's son, Prince Tsunehito was named Crown Prince and heir at age nine.
- 1259 (Shōgen 1, 11th month): In the 14th year of Go-Fukakusa's reign, he abdicated. Go-Fukakusa's younger brother got the succession (senso). Soon after, Emperor Kameyama accepted the monarch's role, duties and powers (sokui). This was confirmed in ceremonies.
- 1268 (Bun'ei 5): Kameyama did not answer a letter from Kublai Khan which demanded tribute. Khan, the leader of China, saw this non-response as rude and not respectful.
- 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 1st month): In the 15th year of Kameyama's reign, he abdicated.
- 19 November 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Yuan China (Kublai Khan) sent a fleet and an army to invade Japan. Some military forces landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū. This was the "Battle of Bun'ei" or the 1st Mongol Invasion. The same day, a storm sank many of the ships with the main part of the invading army. The invaders ran away to Korea. During the short fight, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground.
- 1281 (Kōan 4): This is called the "Battle of Kōan" or the 2nd Mongol Invasion. A typhoon broke up the invading fleet; and this act of 'divine wind' was called kamekaze.
- 1291 (Shōō 4): Kameyama helped to found the Buddhist temple Nanzen-ji in Kyōto.
- 1305 (Kagen 3): Kameyama died.
After his deathEdit
The Imperial Household Agency say the mausoleum (misasagi) of Kameyama is in Kyoto. The emperor is venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine there.
Eras of reignEdit
The years of Kameyama's reign cover more than one era name.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 亀山天皇 (90); retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ↑ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 253-261; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 232-233; Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2002). "Kameyama Tennō" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 461.
- ↑ Titsingh, p. 253; Varley, p. 232.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Martin, Peter. (1997). The Chrysanthemum Throne: a History of the Emperors of Japan, p. 81.
- ↑ Martin, pp. 81-82.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Titsingh, p. 253.
- ↑ Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2011-12-23.
- ↑ Titsingh, p. 261.
- ↑ Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
- ↑ Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ Martin, p. 81
- ↑ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 422.
- ↑ Titsingh, pp. 253-261.
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