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List of emperors of Japan

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The List of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan were compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar,[2] and these traditional dates have been converted into the Western calendar format.

Emperors of JapanEdit

No. Portrait Personal name Reign Posthumous name Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC – 269 AD)
1   Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto 660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu
神武天皇
  Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu[3]
2   Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto 581–549 BC Emperor Suizei
綏靖天皇
  Traditional dates;[4] 3rd son of Jimmu;[5] presumed legendary
3   Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto 549–511 BC Emperor Annei
安寧天皇
  Traditional dates;[6] son and heir of Suizei;[5] presumed legendary
4   Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto 510–476 BC Emperor Itoku
懿徳天皇
  Traditional dates;[6] 2nd son of Annei;[5] presumed legendary
5   Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto 475–393 BC Emperor Kōshō
孝昭天皇
  Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Itoku;[5] presumed legendary
6   Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto 392–291 BC Emperor Kōan
孝安天皇
  Traditional dates;[8] 2nd son of Kōshō;[5] presumed legendary
7   Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto 290–215 BC Emperor Kōrei
孝霊天皇
  Traditional dates;[9] son and heir of Kōan;[5] presumed legendary
8   Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto 214–158 BC Emperor Kōgen
孝元天皇
  Traditional dates;[10] son and heir of Kōrei;[5] presumed legendary
9   Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto 157–98 BC Emperor Kaika
開化天皇
  Traditional dates;[11] 2nd son of Kōgen;[5] presumed legendary
10   Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto 97–30 BC Emperor Sujin
崇神天皇
Traditional dates;[12] first emperor of plausible historicity[13]
11   Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto 29 BC–AD 70  Emperor Suinin
垂仁天皇
Traditional dates[14]
12   Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto 71–130 Emperor Keikō
景行天皇
Traditional dates[15]
13   Waka Tarashihiko 131–191 Emperor Seimu
成務天皇
Traditional dates[16]
14   Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto 192–200 Emperor Chūai
仲哀天皇
Traditional dates[17]
  Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto 201–269 Empress Jingū
神功皇后
Traditional dates;[18] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered Emperors
Kofun period (269–539)
15   Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto 270–310 Emperor Ōjin
応神天皇
Traditional dates;[19] deified as Hachiman
16   Ō Sazaki no Mikoto 313–399 Emperor Nintoku
仁徳天皇
Traditional dates[20]
17   Isaho Wake no Mikoto 400–405 Emperor Richū
履中天皇
Traditional dates[21]
18   Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto 406–410 Emperor Hanzei
反正天皇
Traditional dates[22]
19   Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune 411–453 Emperor Ingyō
允恭天皇
Traditional dates[23]
20   Anaho no Mikoto 453–456 Emperor Ankō
安康天皇
Traditional dates[24]
21   Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto 456–479 Emperor Yūryaku
雄略天皇
Traditional dates[25]
22   Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto 480–484 Emperor Seinei
清寧天皇
Traditional dates[26]
23   Ohoke no Mikoto 485–487 Emperor Kenzō
顕宗天皇
Traditional dates[27]
24   Ohoshi (Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Shimano Iratsuko 488–498 Emperor Ninken
仁賢天皇
Traditional dates[28]
25   Wohatsuse Wakasazaki 498–506 Emperor Buretsu
武烈天皇
Traditional dates[29]
26   Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) 507–531 Emperor Keitai
継体天皇
Traditional dates[30]
27   Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto 531–535 Emperor Ankan
安閑天皇
Traditional dates[31]
28   Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto 535–539 Emperor Senka
宣化天皇
Traditional dates[32]
Asuka period (539–710)
29   Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto 539–571 Emperor Kinmei
欽明天皇
Traditional dates;[33] all Emperors from Kinmei onwards are historically verifiable[34]
30   Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto 572–585 Emperor Bidatsu
敏達天皇
Traditional dates[35]
31   Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto 585–587 Emperor Yōmei
用明天皇
Traditional dates[36]
32   Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto 587–592 Emperor Sushun
崇峻天皇
Traditional dates[37]
33   Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime 592–628 Empress Suiko
推古天皇
Traditional dates;[38] first non-legendary female Emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34   Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) 629–641 Emperor Jomei
舒明天皇
Traditional dates[39]
35   Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 642–645 Empress Kōgyoku
皇極天皇
Traditional dates;[40] reigned twice
36   Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) 645–654 Emperor Kōtoku
孝徳天皇
Traditional dates[41]
37   Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 655–661 Empress Saimei
斉明天皇
Traditional dates;[42] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38   Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) 661–672 Emperor Tenji
天智天皇
Traditional dates[43]
39   Ōtomo 672 Emperor Kōbun
弘文天皇
Traditional dates;[44] usurped by Tenmu; posthumously named (1870)
40   Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) 672–686 Emperor Tenmu
天武天皇
Traditional dates[45]
41   Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 686–697 Empress Jitō
持統天皇
Traditional dates[46]
42   Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) 697–707 Emperor Monmu
文武天皇
Traditional dates[47]
Nara period (710–794)
43   Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) 707–715 Empress Genmei
元明天皇
Traditional dates[48]
44   Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 715–724 Empress Genshō
元正天皇
Traditional dates[49]
45   Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) 724–749 Emperor Shōmu
聖武天皇
Traditional dates[50]
46   Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 749–758 Empress Kōken
孝謙天皇
Traditional dates;[51] reigned twice
47   Ōi 758–764 Emperor Junnin
淳仁天皇
Traditional dates[52] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48   Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 764–770 Empress Shōtoku
称徳天皇
Traditional dates;[53] second reign of Empress Kōken
49   Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) 770–781 Emperor Kōnin
光仁天皇
Traditional dates[54]
50   Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) 781–806 Emperor Kanmu
桓武天皇
Traditional dates[55]
Heian period (794–1185)
51   Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) 806–809 Emperor Heizei
平城天皇
Traditional dates[56]
52   Kamino 809–823 Emperor Saga
嵯峨天皇
Traditional dates[57]
53   Ōtomo 823–833 Emperor Junna
淳和天皇
Traditional dates[58]
54   Masara 833–850 Emperor Ninmyō
仁明天皇
Traditional dates[59]
55   Michiyasu 850–858 Emperor Montoku
文徳天皇
Traditional dates[60]
56   Korehito 858–876 Emperor Seiwa
清和天皇
Traditional dates[61]
57   Sadaakira 876–884 Emperor Yōzei
陽成天皇
Traditional dates[62]
58   Tokiyasu 884–887 Emperor Kōkō
光孝天皇
Traditional dates[63]
59   Sadami 887–897 Emperor Uda
宇多天皇
Traditional dates[64]
60   Atsuhito 897–930 Emperor Daigo
醍醐天皇
Traditional dates[65]
61   Yutaakira 930–946 Emperor Suzaku
朱雀天皇
Traditional dates[66]
62   Nariakira 946–967 Emperor Murakami
村上天皇
Traditional dates[67]
63   Norihira 967–969 Emperor Reizei
冷泉天皇
Traditional dates[68]
64   Morihira 969–984 Emperor En'yū
円融天皇
Traditional dates[69]
65   Morosada 984–986 Emperor Kazan
花山天皇
Traditional dates[70]
66   Kanehito 986–1011 Emperor Ichijō
一条天皇
Traditional dates[71]
67   Okisada/Iyasada 1011–1016 Emperor Sanjō
三条天皇
Traditional dates[72]
68   Atsuhira 1016–1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō
後一条天皇
Traditional dates[73]
69   Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi 1036–1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku
後朱雀天皇
Traditional dates[74]
70   Chikahito 1045–1068 Emperor Go-Reizei
後冷泉天皇
Traditional dates[75]
71   Takahito 1068–1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō
後三条天皇
Traditional dates[76]
72   Sadahito 1073–1087 Emperor Shirakawa
白河天皇
Traditional dates[77]
73   Taruhito 1087–1107 Emperor Horikawa
堀河天皇
Traditional dates[78]
74   Munehito 1107–1123 Emperor Toba
鳥羽天皇
Traditional dates[79]
75   Akihito 1123–1142 Emperor Sutoku
崇徳天皇
Traditional dates[80]
76   Narihito 1142–1155 Emperor Konoe
近衛天皇
Traditional dates[81]
77   Masahito 1155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa
後白河天皇
Traditional dates[82]
78   Morihito 1158–1165 Emperor Nijō
二条天皇
Traditional dates[83]
79   Yorihito 1165–1168 Emperor Rokujō
六条天皇
Traditional dates[84]
80   Norihito 1168–1180 Emperor Takakura
高倉天皇
Traditional dates[84]
81   Tokihito 1180–1185 Emperor Antoku
安徳天皇
Traditional dates[85]
Kamakura period (1185–1333)
82   Takahira 1183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba
後鳥羽天皇
Traditional dates[86]
83   Tamehito 1198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado
土御門天皇
Traditional dates[87]
84   Morihira/Morinari 1210–1221 Emperor Juntoku
順徳天皇
Traditional dates[88]
85   Kanehira/Kanenari 1221 Emperor Chūkyō
仲恭天皇
Traditional dates;[89] posthumously named (1870)
86   Yutahito 1221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa
後堀河天皇
Traditional dates[90]
87   Mitsuhito/Toshihito 1232–1242 Emperor Shijō
四条天皇
Traditional dates[91]
88   Kunihito 1242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga
後嵯峨天皇
Traditional dates[92]
89   Hisahito 1246–1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa
後深草天皇
Traditional dates[93]
90   Tsunehito 1260–1274 Emperor Kameyama
亀山天皇
Traditional dates[94]
91   Yohito 1274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda
後宇多天皇
Traditional dates[95]
92   Hirohito 1287–1298 Emperor Fushimi
伏見天皇
Traditional dates[96]
93   Tanehito 1298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi
後伏見天皇
Traditional dates[97]
94   Kuniharu 1301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō
後二条天皇
Traditional dates[98]
95   Tomihito 1308–1318 Emperor Hanazono
花園天皇
Traditional dates[99]
96   Takaharu 1318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo
後醍醐天皇
Traditional dates;[100] Southern Court
Northern Court (1331–1392)
  Kazuhito 1331–1333 Emperor Kōgon
光厳天皇
Traditional dates[101]
  Yutahito 1336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō
光明天皇
Traditional dates[102]
  Okihito 1348–1351 Emperor Sukō
崇光天皇
Traditional dates[103]
  Iyahito 1352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon
後光厳天皇
Traditional dates[104]
  Ohito 1371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū
後円融天皇
Traditional dates[105]
  Motohito 1382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu
後小松天皇
Traditional dates;[106] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period (1333–1603)
97   Norinaga/Noriyoshi 1339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami
後村上天皇
Traditional dates;[107] Southern Court
98   Yutanari 1368–1383 Emperor Chōkei
長慶天皇
Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
99   Hironari 1383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama
後亀山天皇
Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
100   Motohito 1392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu
後小松天皇
Traditional dates;[110] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101   Mihito 1412–1428 Emperor Shōkō
称光天皇
Traditional dates[111]
102   Hikohito 1428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono
後花園天皇
Traditional dates[112]
103   Fusahito 1464–1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
後土御門天皇
Traditional dates[113]
104   Katsuhito 1500–1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
後柏原天皇
Traditional dates[114]
105   Tomohito 1526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara
後奈良天皇
Traditional dates[115]
106   Michihito 1557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi
正親町天皇
Traditional dates[116]
107   Kazuhito/Katahito 1586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei
後陽成天皇
Traditional dates[117]
Edo period (1603–1867)
108   Kotohito 1611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)

後水尾天皇
Traditional dates[118]
109   Okiko 1629–1643 Empress Meishō
明正天皇
Traditional dates[119]
110   Tsuguhito 1643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō
後光明天皇
Traditional dates[120]
111   Nagahito 1655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai
後西天皇
Traditional dates[121]
112   Satohito 1663–1687 Emperor Reigen
霊元天皇
Traditional dates[122]
113   Asahito/Tomohito 1687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama
東山天皇
Traditional dates[123]
114   Yasuhito/Yoshihito 1709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado
中御門天皇
Traditional dates[124]
115   Teruhito 1735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi
桜町天皇
Traditional dates[125]
116   Toohito 1747–1762 Emperor Momozono
桃園天皇
Traditional dates[126]
117   Toshiko 1762–1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi
後桜町天皇
Traditional dates[127] Last female Emperor. Abdicated; died in 1813
118   Hidehito 1771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono
後桃園天皇
Traditional dates[128]
119   Morohito 1780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku
光格天皇
Traditional dates[129] Died in 1840
120   Ayahito 1817–1846 Emperor Ninkō
仁孝天皇
121   Osahito 1846–1867 Emperor Kōmei
孝明天皇
Last instance of an Emperor with multiple era names
Modern Japan (from 1867)
122   Mutsuhito 1867–1912 Emperor Meiji
明治天皇
The first Emperor of the Empire of Japan
123   Yoshihito 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō
大正天皇
Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") 1921–1926
124   Hirohito 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa
昭和天皇
Served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") 1921–1926.
The last Emperor of the Empire of Japan
125   Akihito 1989–2019 N/A Abdicated at the end of 30 April 2019, first to abdicate in over 200 years. Referred to as Jōkō (上皇) in Japanese, and as "Emperor Emeritus" in English. He will be known as "Emperor Heisei" (平成天皇) posthumously.
126   Naruhito 2019–present N/A Ascended on 1 May 2019. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇; "the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika (天皇陛下; "His Majesty the Emperor") in Japanese, and as "Emperor Naruhito" in English. He will be known as "Emperor Reiwa" (令和天皇) posthumously.[130]

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

 
The chrysanthemum symbol of the Japanese emperor and his family.
  1. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1–3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84–88;
  4. Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Brown, p. 248.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  7. Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  8. Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251–252; Varley, p. 90.
  9. Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92.
  10. Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93.
  11. Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  12. Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93–95.
  13. Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
  14. Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Brown, pp. 253–254; Varley, pp. 95–96.
  15. Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99.
  16. Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  17. Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  18. Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  19. Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, pp. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  20. Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  21. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  22. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  23. Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  24. Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  26. Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  27. Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  28. Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  29. Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  30. Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  31. Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  32. Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  33. Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  34. Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei."
  35. Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  36. Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  37. Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  38. Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  39. Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  40. Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  41. Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  42. Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  43. Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  44. Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  45. Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  46. Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  47. Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  48. Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  49. Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  50. Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  51. Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  52. Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  53. Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  54. Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  55. Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  56. Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  57. Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  58. Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
  59. Brown, pp. 283–284; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112.
  60. Brown, pp. 285–286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115.
  61. Brown, pp. 286–288; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121.
  62. Brown, pp. 288–289; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124.
  63. Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125.
  64. Brown, p. 289–290; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129.
  65. Brown, pp. 290–293; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134.
  66. Brown, pp. 294–295; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138.
  67. Brown, pp. 295–298; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142.
  68. Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143.
  69. Brown, pp. 299–300; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148.
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