Father of the Nation
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a person considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or a nation. Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fatherland", bestowed by the Senate on heroes, and later on emperors. In monarchies, the monarch was often considered the "father/mother of the nation" or as a patriarch to guide his family. This concept is expressed in the Divine Right espoused in some monarchies, while in others it is codified into constitutional law as in Spain, where the monarch is considered the personification and embodiment, the symbol of the unity and permanence of the nation. The title "Father of the Nation" however is politically contested, e.g. in 1972 the Constitution of Bangladesh declared Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to be "father of the nation". The BNP government removed this in 2004, to the protests of the opposition Awami League, led by Rahman's daughter Sheikh Hasina.
The following Gentlemen are still often called the "Father" of their respective nations.
|Name||Nation||Title (native)||Title (translation)||Notes|
|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
||Bangladesh||Jatira Pita (জাতির পিতা) Jatira Janak (জাতির জনক) or Bongobondhu (বঙ্গবন্ধু) (Bengali: — "Friend of Bengal")||Father of the Nation||Revolutionary Leader, Founder of Bangladesh, and father of the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh.|
|Sir John Alexander Macdonald||Canada||N/A||Founding father of the Nation||The Dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career that spanned almost half a century. Macdonald was the leading figure in the subsequent discussions and conferences, which resulted in the British North America Act, 1867 and the establishment of Canada as a nation on 1 July 1867.|
|Mahatma Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
||India||In most Indian languages:
|Father of the Nation/Great Soul of India||This title was not an official title and has no records in the National Archives of India. Indian constitution (Art. 18) prohibits the State from conferring any titles. Origin of this title is traced back to a radio address (on Singapore radio) on 6 July 1944 by Subhash Chandra Bose where Bose addressed Gandhi as "The Father of the Nation".|
|James Busby||New Zealand||United Tribes of New Zealand; - Busby proposed that New Zealand should have a national flag.||Treaty of Waitangi||Father of the Nation, He acted as New Zealand's first jurist and the "Originator of Law in Aotearoa".|
|Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
||Pakistan||Quaid-i-Azam, (Urdu: — "Great Leader") (قائدِ اعظم) & Baba-i-Quam, (Urdu: — "Father of Pakistan") (بابائے قوم) & Ban-i-Pakistan, (Urdu: — "Founder of Pakistan") (بانی پاکستان)||Father of the Nation/Great Leader of the Muslims of India||Statesman and the founder of Pakistan, leading member of the Muslim League and First for Governor-General of Pakistan in 1947. Stanley Wolpert summarises the profound effect that Jinnah had on the world:
|Nelson Mandela||South Africa||Tata wethu||Father of the Nation||First President of post-apartheid South Africa, A member of the (ANC) political party, he served president of the ANC's (1991-1997).|
|Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor
King James the Unifier
|United Kingdom||King George VI||Sealed Emperor of India, Father of the Nation, Late Father of War Time||Commonwealth and House of Windsor. Father of the current Monarchy Respectively. King James VI decided to side-step the whole issue by unilaterally assuming the title of King of Great Britain by a Proclamation concerning the Kings Majesties Stile on the 20th of October in 1604 announcing that he did "assume to Our selfe by the cleerenesse of our Right, The Name and Stile of KING OF GREAT BRITTAINE, FRANCE AND IRELAND, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, &c." .King George VI was First Native King of the|
|George Washington||United States||Revolutionary American Chief of the United States & One of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America.||Father of his country||George Washington is particularly highlighted out of "The Founding Father of American Patriot" as being the "Father of his country" for his role as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, his resignation of command at the end of the war, the presidency of the Constitutional Convention and for Presidency of George Washington (and George Washington's Farewell Address) as the first President of the United States.|
- "Country profile: Bangladesh". BBC News. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- "Cabinet Pays Homage to Bangladesh's Founding President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman". New Age. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department). GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE (LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT). Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- "Crusade with arms". The Hindu. February 2000. Archived from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2020-05-08.
- "National public holidays of Pakistan in 2013". Office Holidays. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Nation celebrates Quaid-e-Azam's birthday". Pakistan Today. 25 December 2012. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Nations, United. "Nelson Mandela International Day, July 18, For Freedom, Justice and Democracy". United Nations. Un.org. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- Grizzard (2002, pp. 105–107) harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFGrizzard2002 (help)
- Rupert Cornwell, "George Washington: The father of the nation" (January 17, 2009).