Illegal drugs are drugs which a person is not allowed to own or use by law.
Drugs and the law change
Each country and place has different laws for different drugs.
Some drugs are allowed only if you have permission (called a "prescription") from a doctor. Other drugs are illegal, meaning a person is never allowed to have them.
If the police find a person with drugs they are not allowed to have, the person may be taken to court. Court cases may result in fines (when a person is required to pay money to the government), prison, or in some countries execution.
Why some drugs are illegal change
A country may want to stop drugs because of the negative effect on the people that use them, or because making the drug illegal will make the government more money.
Why people use drugs change
Some people use drugs as medicine if they are sick to help make them feel better.
Some people might use drugs recreationally (for fun), these are usually controlled drugs.
For spiritual or religious reasons. change
This section does not have any sources. (September 2021)
Health effects change
Drugs can have many effects on a person's health. Some drugs cause many people to die every year. Tobacco and alcohol can cause death, other drugs do not cause death. Cannabis and psilocybin mushrooms ("magic mushrooms") do not cause death. But all drugs affect one's health.[source?]
Overdose occurs when someone uses too much of a drug. Overdosing is very dangerous. It can cause death. Some drugs are easy to overdose on (heroin, alcohol, and aspirin). Other drugs are difficult to overdose on (LSD, cannabis). Many drugs cause long-term (long-lasting) health effects. Smoking tobacco can cause cancer. Drinking alcohol damages the liver (cirrhosis).
Many drugs are used as medicine to help make sick people better. Opiates (morphine, heroin and codeine) are analgesics (painkillers). Nitrous oxide and ketamine are used as anesthetics (to force someone to sleep) for surgical operation. Amphetamines are legally prescribed to treat attention disorders in some countries, such as the United States.
Combining drugs often causes negative effects. One may die if they combine multiple drugs.
Addiction and dependence change
An addiction is the repeated use of a drug. An addict (person with an addiction) uses the drug again and again. Addicts will continue to use the drug, even if the drug hurts them. Addiction causes cravings for the drug. A craving is an intense need for the drug's effects. Drug tolerance occurs when a person's body adapts to a drug. The body becomes more resistant to the drug and craves the drug all the time. If a dependent person stops taking the drug, they may become very sick or die. Medical help is often required to stop addiction.
Some psychoactive drugs are known to be very addictive (causing addiction, like alcohol, heroin, tobacco, methamphetamine and cocaine) other drugs are known to be slightly less addictive (such as khat, cannabis and caffeine) or not addictive at all (such as LSD and Psilocybin mushrooms).
Different drugs are used in different ways. The same drug can be available in different forms, and each form is used a certain way.
Some ways drugs can be taken change
- Orally – The drug is placed in the mouth, then swallowed. Pills are used orally.
- Smoked – The drug is burned, then the smoke is inhaled. Pipes, bongs, cigars and cigarettes are used to smoke.
- Insufflated – The drug is a powder. The powder is snorted directly into the nose.
- Vaporized – The drug is heated until it turns into a vapor. The vapor is breathed in.
- Sublingually – The drug is placed under the tongue. The drug is absorbed through the vein under the tongue. Dissolving tablets are an example of sublingual drug use.
- Buccally – The drug is absorbed through the cheek. The drug is placed between the cheek and the gums.
- Intravenous (also called IV) – The drug is injected into the veins. Usually, it is injected through the arm. A needle and syringe is used for injection.
- Intramuscular (also called IM) – The drug is injected into a muscle. A needle and syringe are also used for injection.
- Rectally – The drug is placed in the anus and absorbed there. The anal drug is called a suppository.
- Transdermally – The drug is absorbed through the skin. Nicotine patches and fentanyl patches are used transdermally.
Orally is the slowest method of using a drug because it must be digested in the stomach first. Injecting a drug (IV or IM) is the fastest method of using a drug. IV and IM drugs are most likely to cause an overdose. It is important to use clean needles to inject. Injecting with used or dirty needles spreads deadly infections (such as Hepatitis C or HIV).
Smoking anything can cause cancer. Smoking can also lead to emphysema (a disease of the lungs). Snorting a drug can lead to ear, nose, and throat conditions. Eating a drug can cause oral (mouth related) problems, like tooth decay.
Types of psychoactive drugs and their effects change
There are many categories (types) of psychoactive drugs (drug that affects the brain). These categories have subcategories (categories inside categories). For example, benzodiazepines and opiates are both subcategories of depressants. Some drugs, such as ketamine have elements of two categories (hallucinogens and depressants). Every drug is different, so it is important to know the effects of each individual drug.
Hallucinogens change the way people see, hear, feel or think. The three main groups of hallucinogens are: psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants. Each group has different effects. They may cause hallucinations. Hallucinations are a feeling, sound, or sight that does not exist. When one hallucinates, they feel, hear, or see something that is not truly there.
Stimulants speed up the central nervous system. People using stimulants may feel happy and excited. Also, they have more energy, concentration, or motivation. Stimulants may cause difficulty sleeping.
Depressants ("Downers") change
Depressants slow down the central nervous system. People using depressants feel happy and content, and sleepy and relaxed. Depressants slow down bodily functions such as breathing and heart rate. They may also make speaking or moving difficult. The difficulty speaking is "slurred speech".
Antipsychotics are used to balance one's moods or stop hallucinations. Many anti-psychotics are legal prescription drugs. One can have them if they have a prescription (doctor's permission). Anti-depressants help depression. Some anti-depressants are also anti-psychotics.
- "What is drug addiction treatment?". American Addiction Centers. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- "Why some people get easily addicted to drugs and alcohol". River Oaks. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- "Part 1: The Connection Between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness".