Khartoum

capital city of Sudan

Khartoum or Khartum (/kɑːrˈtm/ kar-TOOM;[5][6] Arabic: الخرطوم, romanized: Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital city of Sudan. It is also Sudan's largest city. It is where the Blue Nile and main Nile come together. Its name means "elephant tusk". Two other cities nearby are Omdurman and Khartoum North.

Khartoum
الخرطوم
Capital city
Khartoum.jpg
Khartoum Mosque.jpg
University of Khartoum 001.JPG
Elmek Nimir Bridge.jpg
From top: Night View of Khartoum, Khartoum Mosque, the University of Khartoum, and the El Mek Nimr Bridge.
Official seal of Khartoum
Nickname(s): 
"Triangular Capital"
Khartoum is located in Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum
Location in Sudan and Africa
Khartoum is located in Arab world
Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum (Arab world)
Khartoum is located in Africa
Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum (Africa)
Coordinates: 15°30′2″N 32°33′36″E / 15.50056°N 32.56000°E / 15.50056; 32.56000Coordinates: 15°30′2″N 32°33′36″E / 15.50056°N 32.56000°E / 15.50056; 32.56000[1]
Country Sudan
StateKhartoum
Area
 • Capital city1,010 km2 (390 sq mi)
Elevation381 m (1,250 ft)
Population
 (urban 2021, all others 2013)[3][4]
 • Capital city639,598
 • Urban
6,017,000
 • Metro
5,274,321
DemonymsKhartoumese, Khartoumian (the latter more properly designates a Mesolithic archaeological stratum)
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT)

Khartoum has a hot desert climate (BWh in the Koeppen climate classification).

ClimateEdit

Khartoum has a hot desert climate(Köppen climate classification BWh). It is very dry in the winter. This is normal in the Saharo-Sahelian zone. The climate is very dry for most of the year. In eight months of the year, the average rainfall is less than 5 mm (0.20 in) of rain.

In August, there is a little bit of rain. The most amount of rainfall in this month is about 48 mm (1.9 in). The rainy season is usually windy. The average amount of rainfall is very low. There is only 121.3 mm (4.78 in) of precipitation on average in a year. The highest temperatures usually are during two main parts of the year. The first is in the late dry season when the temperatures are usually above 40 °C (104 °F) from April to June. The second is in the early dry season. Here, the average highs are above 39 °C (102 °F) in September and October. Temperatures are usually colder in the night. The lowest average low temperature in the year in January is just above 15 °C (59 °F). Khartoum is one of the hottest major cities on Earth. It has an annual mean temperature of 30 °C (86 °F). In most months, the monthly average temperatures doesn't get below 30 °C (86 °F). This is usually not seen in any other majors cities with hot desert climates like Riyadh, Baghdad and Phoenix.[7]

Climate data for Khartoum (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.7
(103.5)
42.5
(108.5)
45.2
(113.4)
46.2
(115.2)
46.8
(116.2)
46.3
(115.3)
44.5
(112.1)
43.5
(110.3)
44.0
(111.2)
43.0
(109.4)
41.0
(105.8)
39.0
(102.2)
46.8
(116.2)
Average high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
32.6
(90.7)
36.5
(97.7)
40.4
(104.7)
41.9
(107.4)
41.3
(106.3)
38.5
(101.3)
37.6
(99.7)
38.7
(101.7)
39.3
(102.7)
35.2
(95.4)
31.7
(89.1)
37.0
(98.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.2
(73.8)
25.0
(77.0)
28.7
(83.7)
31.9
(89.4)
34.5
(94.1)
34.3
(93.7)
32.1
(89.8)
31.5
(88.7)
32.5
(90.5)
32.4
(90.3)
28.1
(82.6)
24.5
(76.1)
29.9
(85.8)
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
16.8
(62.2)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.3
(81.1)
27.6
(81.7)
26.2
(79.2)
25.6
(78.1)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
21.0
(69.8)
17.0
(62.6)
22.8
(73.0)
Record low °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
12.7
(54.9)
18.5
(65.3)
20.2
(68.4)
17.8
(64.0)
18.0
(64.4)
17.7
(63.9)
17.5
(63.5)
11.0
(51.8)
6.2
(43.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
3.9
(0.15)
4.2
(0.17)
29.6
(1.17)
48.3
(1.90)
26.7
(1.05)
7.8
(0.31)
0.7
(0.03)
0.0
(0.0)
121.3
(4.78)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.9 4.0 4.2 3.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 14.7
Average relative humidity (%) 27 22 17 16 19 28 43 49 40 28 27 30 29
Mean monthly sunshine hours 316.2 296.6 316.2 318.0 310.0 279.0 269.7 272.8 273.0 306.9 303.0 319.3 3,580.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.2 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.0 9.3 8.7 8.8 8.1 9.9 10.1 10.3 9.8
Source 1: World Meteorological Organisation,[8] NOAA (extremes and humidity 1961–1990)[9]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[10]

DemographicsEdit

Year Population
City Metropolitan area
1907[11] 69,349 n.a.
1956 93,100 245,800
1973 333,906 748,300
1983 476,218 1,340,646
1993 947,483 2,919,773
2008 Census Preliminary 3,639,598 5,274,321

Almost 250,000 Syrians lived in Khartoum in 2019, representing 5% of all of the people in the city. Most of the population are young men who have fled war in Syria. Sudan was the only country in the world to accept travelers that has a Syrian passport but didn't have a visa.[12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Where is Khartoum, The Sudan?". worldatlas.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  2. "Sudan: States, Major Cities, Towns & Agglomeration - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  3. "Sudan Facts on Largest Cities, Populations, Symbols - Worldatlas.com". www.worldatlas.com. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  4. Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (17th ed.). Demographia. May 2021. p. 42. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  5. "Khartoum". Dictionary.reference.com.
  6. "Khartoum". TheFreeDictionary.com.
  7. Peel, M. C.; B. L. Finlayson; T. A. McMahon (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
  8. "World Weather Information Service – Khartoum". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
  9. "Khartoum Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  10. "Klimatafel von Khartoum / Sudan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  11. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Khartum" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 773.
  12. Tobin, Sarah A. (13 November 2019). "The New Lost Boys of Sudan". The Project on Middle East Political Science. Retrieved 4 December 2020.