Kingdom of Hanover

German kingdom established in 1814

The Kingdom of Hanover (German: Königreich Hannover) was a kingdom in northwest Germany. It was created in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna. It came after the Electorate of Hanover (officially the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg). It joined 38 other countries in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover. This was a branch of the House of Welf. It was in personal union with Great Britain since 1714. Usually a viceroy controlled Hanover. This was because its monarch lived in London. The viceroys were usually younger members of the British royal family.

Kingdom of Hanover
Königreich Hannover
Flag of Hanover
Coat of arms of Hanover
Coat of arms
Motto: Suscipere et Finire
"Support and Finish"
Anthem: Heil dir, Hannover
The Kingdom of Hanover in 1815
The Kingdom of Hanover in 1815
StatusState of the German Confederation, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1814–1837)
Common languagesGerman,
West Low German
Protestantism (mainly Lutheranism,[1] but also Calvinism), Roman Catholicism
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
• 1814–1820
George III
• 1820–1830
George IV
• 1830–1837
William IV
• 1837–1851
Ernest Augustus
• 1851–1866
George V
LegislatureAssembly of the Kingdom of Hanover
12 October 1814
13 March 1848
14 June 1866
23 August 1866
• Annexed by Prussia
20 September 1866
CurrencyHanoverian thaler,
Hanoverian vereinsthaler
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Electorate of Hanover
Kingdom of Westphalia
Province of Hanover
Today part ofGermany

The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria became the queen of the UK. This was because females were not allowed to rule Hanover while a related male was still alive. Because of this, her uncle Ernest Augustus thus became the ruler of Hanover. His only son took over from him as George V. However, he was on the losing side of the Austro-Prussian War. His kingdom was then taken over by Prussia in 1866 and lost independence. It became a Prussian province. Hanover became part of the German Empire with the unification of Germany in January 1871. The country came back as the State of Hanover in 1946. But this state was later merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in then West Germany. The city of Hanover became the capital of this new state.

Notes change

  1. W. Frizzell, Robert (2007). Independent Immigrants: A Settlement of Hanoverian Germans in Western Missouri. University of Missouri Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780826266095. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover, the official church of the kingdom