Mujaddid

Islamic term

Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎) in Islam is a reformer who is given the task of removing errors that have occurred among Muslims. Their job is to show people the great religious truths which the Muslim community will be asked to face.[1] According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity. In contemporary times, a mujaddid is looked upon as the greatest Muslim of a century.[2]

Ikhtilaf (disagreements) exist among vatious hadith specialists. Scholars and historians like Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have interpreted that the term mujaddid can also be understood as plural, thus referring to a group of people.[3][4]

The Arabic word mujaddid means "reformer", "renewer" or "regenerator". It is someone who revives and changes the religion. The concept of tajdid (renewal or revival) and the term mujaddid come rather from a hadith, a statement of the Prophet Muhammad. This hadith was written down by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, one of the six authoritative Sunni collections of the Prophet's statements. In this hadith, the Prophet says:

"Allah will raise for this community at the end of every hundred years the one who will renovate its religion for it."[5]

Mujaddids can include prominent scholars, pious rulers and military commanders.[6][7]

The concept of tajdid in Islamic thoughtEdit

Tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought means renewing the ideology representing the intellectual product of Muslims in the fields of science, knowledge and ijtihad to interpret Islam and understand and explicate its rulings.

Al-Suyuti mentioned in his book Al-Jami' al-Sagheer, "Renewing religion means renewing its guidance, clarifying its truth and precedence, refuting the innovations and extremism presented to its followers or their reluctance in upholding it, and following its rules in managing the interests of the people and the law of society and civilization."[8]

Among the most manifest aspects of tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought is the renewal of Islamic sciences as follows:[9]

  1. The science of Islamic doctrine.
  2. The Principles of Islamic jurisprudence.
  3. The science of Jurisprudence.
  4. The science of the sunnah.
  5. The science of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir).
  6. The science of Purification and Code of Conduct (Sufism).
  7. The biography of the Prophet and Islamic history.

The reformers in IslamEdit

There is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid. The persons of this list are claimed to be Mujaddid.

Rulers and conquerors such as Saladin, Tamerlane, Shah Rukh, Mehmet II, Selim I, Suleiman, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan were often popularly heralded as mujaddids for their roles in Political Islam (Saladin, Ottoman's Selim I and Suleiman I held the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques).[10][11][12][13][14]
 
Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), mujaddid of the 7th century, is known for his theological, political and military activities.
 
Abul A'la Maududi, one of the mujaddids of the last century.[15]

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid in Sunni Islam, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and Ahmadiyya[16][page needed][17] have their own list of mujaddids.[6]

First Century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)Edit

Second Century (August 10, 815)Edit

Third Century (August 17, 912)Edit

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)Edit

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)Edit

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)Edit

Seventh Century (September 5, 1300)Edit

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)Edit

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)Edit

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)Edit

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)Edit

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)Edit

Thirteenth Century (November 14, 1882)Edit

Fourteenth Century (November 21, 1979)Edit

NotesEdit

  1. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the founder of the Ahmadiyya sect. The Sunni-Shia mainstream and the majority of Muslims reject the Ahmadiyya (known to them Qadianis) sect as it believes in non-law bearing prophethood after Muhammad.[49][50][51]

ReferencesEdit

  • Tuhfat al-Muhtadin bi Akhbar al-Mujaddidin (Arabic: تحفة المهتدين بأخبار المجددين‎) by Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti.
  • Mausu'at A'lam al-Mujaddidin fi al-Islam (Arabic: موسوعة أعلام المجددين في الإسلام‎) by Samih Kurayyim.
  • Mujaddid - Islamic Encyclopedia
  1. Ali, Maulana Muhammad (2011). The Religion of Islam by Muhammad Ali. Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore USA. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-934271-18-6.
  2. "Mujaddid - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  3. Fath al-Baari (13/295)
  4. Taareekh al-Islam (23/180)
  5. "Hadith - Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Meri, Josef W. (ed.). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678.
  7. Islam and modernity: Islamist movements and the politics of position by Said Mentak.
  8. "Reform (Islah) and Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic Thought". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.
  9. "Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic sciences". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.
  10. Jackson, Roy (2010). Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and the Islamic State. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-95036-0.
  11. Pande, B.N. (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan. ISBN 9788185220383.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Advocate of Dialogue. Fountain Publishing. 2000. ISBN 978-0-9704370-1-3.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Akgunduz, Ahmed; Ozturk, Said (2011). Ottoman History - Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-902610-8-9. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Abu-Rabi', Ibrahim (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought. John Wiley & Sons. p. 172. ISBN 1-4051-7848-5.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-535711-0.
  16. Athyal, Jesudas M. (2015). Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-250-2.
  17. Athyal, Jesudas (2015). Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. Abc-Clio Incorporated. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-61069-249-6.
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  24. Ihya Ulum Ad Din, Dar Al Minhaj: Volume 1. p. 403.
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  26. "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth Century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011.
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  28. Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  29. Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
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  32. The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227-228
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  40. The Fundamental Principles of Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy by Reza Akbarian
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  46. Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282.
  47. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Thompson Gale (2004)
  48. Khan, Adil Hussain (2015). From Sufism to Ahmadiyya: A Muslim Minority Movement in South Asia. Indiana University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-253-01529-7.
  49. "Ahmadis - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03. Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the mainstream belief in the finality of Muhammad 's “legislative” prophecy) with a divine mandate for the revival and renewal of Islam ... Rejected by the majority of Muslims as heretical since the Ahmadis believes in ongoing prophethood after the death of Prophet Muhammad.
  50. "The Ahmadiyyah Movement - Islamic Studies - Oxford Bibliographies - obo". Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  51. "Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-08. Founder of Ahmadi movement in Punjab, India, in 1889... The movement is labeled non-Muslim and fiercely opposed by Muslims, although the group considers itself Muslim.
  52. Wagemakers, Joas (2016). Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-107-16366-9.

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