Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد) in Islam is a reformer who is given the task of removing errors that have occurred among Muslims. Their job is to show people the great religious truths which the Muslim community will be asked to face. According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity. In contemporary times, a mujaddid is looked upon as the greatest Muslim of a century.
Ikhtilaf (disagreements) exist among vatious hadith specialists. Scholars and historians like Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have interpreted that the term mujaddid can also be understood as plural, thus referring to a group of people.
The Arabic word mujaddid means "reformer", "renovator", "reviver", "renewer" or "regenerator". It is someone who revives and renovates the religion. The concept of tajdid (renewal or revival) and the term mujaddid come rather from a hadith, a statement of the Prophet Muhammad. This hadith was written down by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, one of the six authoritative Sunni collections of the Prophet's statements. In this hadith, the Prophet says:
"Verily, Allah (God) sends to (or will raise for) this Ummah (the Islamic nation) at the head (the beginning or the end) of every hundred years someone (or people) who will renew (or revive) for it its religion."
This means reform is in the essential nature of Islam and Muslims are called all the time to work hard to make new ideas cope with tradition. It also means that not everything in the Muslim tradition is useful and good for this modern age; there are certain things that were possible in the past but are no longer relevant today. Slavery would be a prime example.
The concept of tajdid in Islamic thoughtEdit
Tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought means renewing the ideology representing the intellectual product of Muslims in the fields of science, knowledge and ijtihad to interpret Islam and understand and explicate its rulings.
Al-Suyuti mentioned in his book Al-Jami' al-Sagheer, "Renewing religion means renewing its guidance, clarifying its truth and precedence, refuting the innovations and extremism presented to its followers or their reluctance in upholding it, and following its rules in managing the interests of the people and the law of society and civilization."
Among the most manifest aspects of tajdid (renewal) in Islamic thought is the renewal of Islamic sciences as follows:
- The science of Islamic doctrine.
- The Principles of Islamic jurisprudence.
- The science of Jurisprudence.
- The science of the sunnah.
- The science of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir).
- The science of Purification and Code of Conduct (Sufism).
- The biography of the Prophet and Islamic history.
Mujaddids can include prominent scholars, pious rulers and military commanders.
The reformers in IslamEdit
There is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid. The persons of this list are claimed to be Mujaddid.
1th Century AHEdit
- Al-Hasan al-Basri (21–110 A.H./642–728 A.D.)
- Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (63–101 A.H./682–720 A.D.)
- Abu Hanifah (80–150 A.H./702–772 A.D.)
- Malik ibn Anas (93–179 A.H./711–795 A.D.)
2th Century AHEdit
- Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (150–204 A.H./767–820 A.D.)
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164–241 A.H./781–855 A.D.)
3th Century AHEdit
- Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (260–324 A.H./873–935 A.D.)
- Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (238–333 A.H./852–944 A.D.)
- Abu Ja'far al-Tahawi (239–321 A.H./853–933 A.D.)
- Ibn Surayj (249–306 A.H./864–918 A.D.)
4th Century AHEdit
- Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (338–403 A.H./950–1013 A.D.)
- Ibn Furak (330–406 A.H./941–1015 A.D.)
- Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri (321–405 A.H./933–1014 A.D.)
- Abu Hamid al-Isfarayini (344–406 A.H./955–1015 A.D.)
- Abu al-Tayyib Sahl al-Sa'luki (000–404 A.H./000–1013/14 A.D.)
- Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi (384–456 A.H./994–1064 A.D.)
- Abu al-Ma'ali al-Juwayni (419–478 A.H./1028–1085 A.D.)
5th Century AHEdit
- Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (450–505 A.H./1058–1111 A.D.)
- Ibn al-Jawzi (509/510–597 A.H./1116–1201 A.D.)
- Ahmad al-Rifa'i (512–578 A.H./1118–1182 A.D.)
6th Century AHEdit
- Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (543/44–606 A.H./1149–1209 A.D.)
- Abu al-Qasim al-Rafi'i (555–623 A.H./1160–1226 A.D.)
- Al-Baydawi (000–685 A.H./000–1286 A.D.)
- Al-'Izz ibn 'Abd al-Salam (577–660 A.H./1181/82–1262 A.D.)
7th Century AHEdit
- Ibn Daqiq al-'ld (625–702 A.H./1228–1302 A.D.)
- Ibn 'Ata' Allah al-Sakandari (658–709 A.H./1259–1309 A.D.)
- Ibn Battuta (703–779 A.H./1304–1377 A.D.)
- Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (720–790 A.H./1320–1388 A.D.)
- Al-Taftazani (722–793 A.H./1322–1390 A.D.)
8th Century AHEdit
- Siraj al-Din al-Bulqini (724-805 A.H./1324-1403 A.D.)
- Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi (725-806 A.H./1325-1404 A.D.)
- Ibn Khaldun (732-808 A.H./1332-1406 A.D.)
9th Century AHEdit
- Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (849–911 A.H./1445–1505 A.D.)
- Zakariyya al-Ansari (823–926 A.H./1420–1520 A.D.)
- 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani (898–973 A.H./1493–1565 A.D.)
10th Century AHEdit
- Shams al-Din al-Ramli (919–1004 A.H./1513–1596 A.D.)
- Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (993–1081 A.H./1585–1671 A.D.)
- Ahmad Sirhindi (971–1034 A.H./1564–1624 A.D.)
11th Century AHEdit
- Aurangzeb (1068–1118 A.H./1658–1707 A.D.)
- 'Abdallah ibn 'Alawi al-Haddad (1044–1132 A.H./1634–1719 A.D.)
- Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1114–1176 A.H./1703–1762 A.D.)
12th Century AHEdit
- Murtada al-Zabidi (1145–1205 A.H./1732–1791 A.D.)
- Ahmad ibn 'Ajiba (1160–1224 A.H./1747–1809 A.D.)
- Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi (1159–1239 A.H./1746–1824 A.D.)
13th Century AHEdit
- 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (1271–1320 A.H./1855–1902 A.D.)
- Muhammad 'Abduh (1266–1323 A.H./1849–1905 A.D.)
- Muhammad Rashid Reda (1282–1354 A.H./1865–1935 A.D.)
- Muhammad al-Tahir ibn 'Ashur (1296–1393 A.H./1879–1973 A.D.)
- Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (1294–1379 A.H./1877–1960 A.D.)
- Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (1296–1371 A.H./1878–1951 A.D.)
- Muhammad Mustafa al-Maraghi (1298–1364 A.H./1881–1945 A.D.)
- Abbas Mahmoud al-Akkad (1306–1383 A.H./1889–1964 A.D.)
- Mahmoud Shaltout (1310–1383 A.H./1893–1963 A.D.)
- Muhammad Abu Zahrah (1315/16–1394 A.H./1898–1974 A.D.)
- Malek Bennabi (1323–1393 A.H./1905–1973 A.D.)
- Abdel-Halim Mahmoud (1328–1397 A.H./1910–1978 A.D.)
- Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi (1302 - 1363 A.H / 1885 -1944 A.D )
14th Century AHEdit
- Tuhfat al-Muhtadin bi Akhbar al-Mujaddidin (Arabic: تحفة المهتدين بأخبار المجددين) by Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti.
- Mausu'at A'lam al-Mujaddidin fi al-Islam (Arabic: موسوعة أعلام المجددين في الإسلام) by Samih Kurayyim.
- Mujaddid - Islamic Encyclopedia
- Ali, Maulana Muhammad (2011). The Religion of Islam by Muhammad Ali. Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore USA. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-934271-18-6.
- "Mujaddid - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
- Fath al-Baari (13/295)
- Taareekh al-Islam (23/180)
- "Hadith - Book of Battles (Kitab Al-Malahim) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
- Islam and modernity: Islamist movements and the politics of position by Said Mentak.
- "Reform (Islah) and Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic Thought". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.
- "Renewal (Tajdid) in Islamic sciences". Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah.
- Meri, Josef W. (ed.). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678.
- Jackson, Roy (2010). Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and the Islamic State. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-95036-0.
- Pande, B.N. (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan. ISBN 9788185220383.
- Advocate of Dialogue. Fountain Publishing. 2000. ISBN 978-0-9704370-1-3.
- Akgunduz, Ahmed; Ozturk, Said (2011). Ottoman History - Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-902610-8-9. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Abu-Rabi', Ibrahim (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought. John Wiley & Sons. p. 172. ISBN 1-4051-7848-5.
- Athyal, Jesudas M. (2015). Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-250-2.
- Athyal, Jesudas (2015). Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. Abc-Clio Incorporated. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-61069-249-6.