A new town, planned community, or planned city is a kind of city that is designed by architects and engineers before it is built. Most cities and towns just develop over the years, without a clear plan. Urban planning is only used for later expansion.
There are many examples of capital cities being planned throughout history: Baghdad, Iraq; Washington D.C., United States; New Delhi, India; Canberra, Australia; Brasília, Brazil; and Naypyidaw, Myanmar were all planned.
In contrast, London was not planned. This map dates from around 1560.