Nongdā Lāiren Pākhangba

Meitei Emperor who ascended the throne of Kangleipak in 33 AD
(Redirected from Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa)

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (Old Manipuri: Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa) or Nongda Lairel Pakhangba (Old Manipuri: Nongta Lailel Pakhangpa) was officially the first Meitei king of the Ningthouja dynasty.[6] He was coronated in the Kangla of Kangleipak (Manipuri for Manipur realm) in 33 AD.[7][8][9][10] He rose to power after defeating the Khabas.[a][11][12]

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba
(Old Manipuri: Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa)
"Maker of Manipur"[1]
Ningthou
"Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa" (Ancient Meitei name) and "Nongda Lairen Pakhangba" (Modern Meitei name) of the Meitei king who ascended the throne of the Kangla of Kangleipak (Meitei for Manipur realm) in AD 33
33 AD
Coronation33 AD[2][3]
InvestitureAD 33
SuccessorKhuyoi Tompok
BornUnknown
Diedsee here
ConsortLeima Laisana (Leima Leisana)
marriedLeima Laisana (Leima Leisana)
Full name
Meitingu Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa
Ancient MeiteiNongtā Lāilen Pākhangpa
Royal houseNingthouja (Old Manipuri: Ningthoucha)
DynastyNingthouja dynasty
MotherCakha Nuron Piron Yambi[4] (also spelled as "Chakha Nuron Piron Yambi"[5])
ReligionMeitei religion (Sanamahism)
OccupationMonarch


An illustration of the name of “Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa”, an ancient ruler of archaic Kangleipak civilization, written in the Classical Meitei script (Traditional Meetei Mayek writing system) in the seven clans' colour sequence

According to Paratt, before the times of king Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, the "salai"s (Meitei for clans) were already in existence.[13]

The ancient flag of Kangleipak (Ancient Meitei for Manipur) realm, with the seven colours depicting the seven clan dynasties

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba started unifying the warring ethnic groups and principality groups positively. It led to the formation of Manipur realm, under the political supremacy of the Ningthouja dynasty (Mangang clan) in the first century AD.[14][15][16][17] Despite the historical context, with the usage of the title "Pakhangba",[6] he was often deified with various mythological tales, revolving around his identity as a human incarnation of God Pakhangba (frequently mentioned in the alias "Konjil Tuthokpa").[12][15][16]

According to Sujit Mukherjee, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba ruled from 33 AD to 54 AD (21 years of reign). The Cheitharol Kumbaba also recorded the list of Meitei kings, starting from Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. The record has several versions. However, the most authentic record is the one that is preserved in the Royal Palace of Manipur.[18] The information on the Cheitharol Kumbaba is supplemented by that in the Chada Laihui, which also records the details of the Meitei kings, starting from Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, regarding their parentage and important events in their reigns.[19][20]

According to Prof. P. Gunindra Singh, coins were issued by Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, which served as one of the significant evidences relevant to the study of the subject.[21]

A match of Sagol Kangjei (Meitei for Polo) depicted in a stamp of India

One of the most remarkable historical events occurred during the times of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was the organising of a match of polo (Meitei: Sagol Kangjei) sports, played by his friends, in the Imphal Polo Ground (Meitei: Mapal Kangjeibung[b]), the oldest Polo Ground in the world.[22][23][24][25][26][27]

Name change

The name "Pakhangpa" (Ancient Meitei for Pakhangba) was mentioned in the ancient Meitei text, named the Thanglon Thangchat. However, due to the given name "Pakhangba", being possessed by multiple historical personalities in ancient times, the identity of the "Pakhangba" mentioned in the text is questionable. Notably, there were four notable people named "Pakhangba", who are (1) Leinung Lonja Ariba Pakhangba, (2) Tangja Leela Pakhangba, (3) Lolang Pakhangba, and (4) Nongda Lairen Pakhangba himself. They lived in different times in the history of Manipur.[7]

The title "Pakhangba" is used by the historical kings who are considered to be "enlightened". King Nongta Lailen ("Nongda Lairen") was one among the historical personalities to use the title "Pakhangba". Many scholars compared the usage of the title "Pakhangba" by Meitei kings with that of the title "Buddha", used by the people who are considered to be "The Awakened One" or "The Enlightened One".[6][28] King Pakhangba inherited the political powers as he followed the traditional practices of his forefathers and paid respect for his ancestral rituals.[6]

Rise to power change

According to Hareshwar Goshwami's "History of the People of Manipur" as well as the ancient Meitei text Chengleiron, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba subjugated the powers of Sorarel Ariba Ahum, who were the chiefs of three clans, viz. Chengleis, Luwangs and Nganbas.[29] Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was challenged by Poireiton, for the throne of the Kangla. In the conflict, the former defeated the latter.[30] With the accession of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba to the throne of the Kangla, other clans including the Chengleis and Khaba Nganbas lost their sovereignty. The Angoms and the Luwangs, though independent, shared their political powers with Nongda Lairen Pakhangba.[31]

Some scholars opined that under the administration of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, his capital was divided into 4 "pana"s (Meitei for divisions). The 4 panas include Ahallup Pana, Naharup Pana, Laipham Pana and Khabam Pana. However, some scholars are of the opinion that the "Pana" system is a later interpolation, by stating that "Pana" came into existence during Meitei King Khagemba's era.[32]

Family change

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba's queen consort, Leima Leisana (also called "Laisna"[33]), was a maibi (Meitei: ꯃꯥꯏꯕꯤ, romanized: /māi.bī/, lit.'priestess'[34]). Leisana and her brother Poireiton had their origin from a distant place in the east. When she and her brother came to the realm of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, they were accompanied by the Poirei people. She brought two hundred varieties of fruits and vegetables. Legend says that one hundred of the varieties were meant to be cooked and the rest of the hundred were meant to be eaten raw.[35]

Administration change

During the reign of king Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, the "Kuchu" (Meitei: ꯀꯨꯆꯨ, /kū.chū/) was established in his kingdom. It was the highest level court (supreme court), having legal jurisdictions over both criminal cases as well as civil cases. The king was the president of the court, and his nobles as well as ministers served as its members.[32][36][37] The "Kuchu" court also used to perform trials of women's cases. The concept of the liberation of women (feminist movement) was already prevalent in that era. The roles of women in their families' decision making processes were considerably significant.[38][39]

The "Cheirap" (derived from the word "Cheirak") was established during the reign of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in his kingdom.[40] In Meitei language, "Cheirap" (Meitei: ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯞ, /cə́i.rap/) means "court".[41] In Meitei language, "Cheirak" (Meitei: ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯛ, /cə́i.rak/) means "punishment" or "said of strict control to enforce obedience".[42]

Starting from the era of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in the 1st century AD, "Pacha Loishang" (also spelled as "Patcha")(Meitei for Women's court) was established in Kangleipak. The court protected the women's rights, privileges, rights against immoral trafficks. During his time, his queen consort "Laisna" presided over the court, dealing all women related crimes.[33][37][43]

The Lallup system was established during the reign of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in his kingdom.[44][45] The "Lallup" (also spelled as "Lalup") was a practice of forced labor and free labour in services to the sovereign or to the state.[46]

Development of art and culture change

When Nongda Lairen Pakhangba and his queen consort Laishna were coronated in 33 AD, the ritual song "Ougri" was sung. "Ougri" ritual song can bring either prosperity or ruination to the civilization.[47][48][49] Since then, it became customary to recite "Ougri" during the coronations of every Meitei kings.[50][51][52] These recitations of the verses, during the royal coronation of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 AD, were recorded in the ancient text, "Laisrapham".[3][47][53][54]

 
Pena, the traditional musical instrument of the Meiteis.

During the era of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, a court singer named Leinung Tharuk Asheiba initiated the performance of the traditional musical instrument Pena.[c][55][56]

According to Dr. Yumlembam Gopi, the Ancient Meiteis used to play khung, a playing instrument, prior to the era of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 AD.[57] The khung (Meitei: ꯈꯨꯡ, /kʰuŋ/) is a cone-shaped toy, similar to the top.[58]

The Hiyang Tannaba (transl.boat race of the Hiyang Hiren) festival had been celebrated since the time of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in his kingdom.[59]

The Mera Hou Chongba (also spelled as Mera Hao Chonba) was believed to be introduced by Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. It is a festival in which dignitaries from all the ethnic groups assembled together in the Kangla. It is annually celebrated on the 10th day of the Meitei lunar month of Mera (October-November interface month).[60]

Official groups of medical care change

During the reigns of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in the 1st century AD, his younger sister named Panthoibi,[d] established the "Ametpa Loishang" (Meitei for Office of the masseurs). The Loishang (Meitei: ꯂꯣꯏꯁꯪ/ꯂꯣꯏꯁꯡ, romanized: /lói.sə́ŋ/, lit.'office or institution'[61]) used to perform the treatment and the diagnosis of diseases and sicknesses, including boils, abscesses, ulcers, etc. "Laibi", a post in that office, supervised the procedures. "Metpi"s used to perform delivery and child birth. "Metpi Laibi"s were responsible for the treatment of diseases for the Queen and other imperial consorts. "Metpi Laibi"s always used to accompany the king wherever he went, by bringing medical tools and medicines. The text "Loishangi Thouram Thougal" mentioned about the duties of the Loishang and the "Laibi". The text "Masil" (also spelled as "Masin", Meitei: ꯃꯁꯤꯜ/ꯃꯁꯤꯟ, romanized: mə.sil/mə.sin, lit.'one's duty'[62]) mentioned about the "Metpi"s and the "Metpi Laibi"s.[63]

Death or dethronement change

Though almost all the scholars have a consensus on the year of the coronation of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba as AD 33,[64][65][66] regarding the year of the end of his reign, which maybe either due to his death or due to being abdicated, is still disputed.

54 AD

In accordance with Sujit Mukherjee, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba ruled from 33 AD to 54 AD (21 years of reign).[67]

153 AD

Many sources claim that Nongda Lairen Pakhangba ruled from 33 AD to 153 AD (120 years of reign).[68][69]

154 AD

Many sources claim that Nongda Lairen Pakhangba ruled from 33 AD to 154 AD (121 years of reign).[70][71][72]

AD 54, AD 153 or AD 154 maybe either his year of death or removal from the power of monarchy, which is not confirmed.

Some scientists estimate that in case of the most ideal conditions people can live up to 127 years.[73][74] This does not exclude the theoretical possibility that in the case of a fortunate combination of mutations there could be a person who lives longer. Some scientists cautiously suggest that the human body can have sufficient resources to live up to 150 years.[75][76]

Cause of death

According to Anuradha Dutta and ‎Ratna Bhuyan, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was murdered and his queen Laisana saved their son, the prince.[77]

Worship as a god change

In traditional Meitei religion change

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was considered as an ancestor, later worshipped as a God. Some scholars opined that people of later generations wove mythological stories around him. However, some are of the opinion that he was a God living with the human beings and behaving like a normal human.[15][16][78]

According to superstitious people, Pakhangba was a demigod, appearing "divine" in daytime and appearing "humanly" in nighttime. With this, the theory of Meitei kings being of "divine origin" started. The identity of the historical king Pakhangba got mingled up with that of the serpentine dragon god Pakhangba of ancient Meitei mythology and religion.[15][16][16][79]

In Hinduism change

According to Thomas Callan Hodson's "The Meitheis" (1908), with the influence of Hinduism, new mythological tales tainted the identity of King Pakhangba. According to one Hindu lore, King Pakhangba was said to be born to Enoog Howba Chonoo, who was said to be the wife of Babrubahana, by the end of the Dvapara Yuga (Dapar Jug) and by the beginning of the Kali Yuga (Kali Jug), which is estimated to be around the year 3435. Hindu names were given as aliases to King Pakhangba. For example, "Jobista" (also spelled as "Yavista") was given as a synonym for King Pakhangba. According to another Hindu lore, King Pakhangba was claimed as the grandson of Babruvahana (Arjuna's son) and the son of Sooprabahoo (Babruvahana's son), thereby drawing relationship with the characters in the Mahabharata.[80]

In the 18th century AD, the "Vijay Panchali" (also spelled as "Bijoy Panchali") composed by Shantidas Goswami, a Hindu missionary, attempting to erase the history and the culture of Manipur, projected the land of northeast India's Manipur as the Manipur of the Mahabharata and claimed Babruvahana (Arjuna's son) as the father of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, by identifying him as "Yavistha".[81][82]

Notably, in the year 2020, "A Short History of Manipur", a book written by Rajkumar Jhalajit Singh, was banned from publishing and selling by the author's own family members, because the book misleads the readers that the Manipuris are the descendants of Arjuna of the Mahabharata.[83][84]

In art and culture change

In the Kangla of Imphal, Manipur, there is an annual flag hoisting ceremony of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba organised by Nahanong Kanglei Laining Liklam (NKLL). Ritual ceremonies are performed and the "Salai Taret Huiyen Lalong Thang-Ta Lup", giving guard of honour, hoists the flag of Nongda Lairen Phakhangba. The ceremony is performed for the purpose to preserve and promote the indigenous art and culture of Kangleipak.[85]

See also change

Notes change

  1. Padma Shri awardee scholar Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra mentioned it in the page 37 of his article "Sources of the History of Manipur", quoting information from ancient texts including but not limited to the “Pakhangba Laihui” and the “Panthoibi Khongul”.
  2. The Meitei language term "Mapal Kangjeibung" is the more popular term for the Polo Ground.
  3. This fact was published in the article "Pena music in Manipuri culture", written by "State Kala Akademi" and "Sahitya Akademi" awardee Dr. Makhonmani Mongsaba.
  4. The younger sister of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba is eponymous with Meitei goddess Panthoibi because "Panthoibi" is a female given name of the Meiteis.

References change

  1. Minahan, James B. (2012-08-30). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7. A gifted ruler, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, who established the kingdom, is known as the maker of Manipur.
  2. The Oxford anthology of writings from North-East India. Volume 2, Poetry and essays. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. 2011. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-19-806749-8.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Northeast India A Reader. Routledge. 2018-01-01. pp. 311–312.
  4. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2011. p. 160.
  5. Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature. 2005. p. 146.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Bhattacharyya, Rituparna (2022-07-29). Northeast India Through the Ages: A Transdisciplinary Perspective on Prehistory, History, and Oral History. Taylor & Francis. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-000-62390-1.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  8. Division, Publications. India 2021: A Reference Annual. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. p. 83. ISBN 978-93-5409-120-9.
  9. Noni, Arambam; Sanatomba, Kangujam (2015-10-16). Colonialism and Resistance: Society and State in Manipur. Routledge. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-317-27066-9.
  10. Noni, Arambam; Sanatomba, Kangujam (2015-10-16). Colonialism and Resistance: Society and State in Manipur. Routledge. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-317-27066-9.
  11. Singh, Dr Th Suresh (2014-06-02). The Endless Kabaw Valley: British Created Visious Cycle of Manipur, Burma and India. p. 28. ISBN 978-93-84318-00-0. Quoting 'Pakhangba Laihui, "Panthoibi Khongul" etc., scholar Khelchandra stated in his article "Sources of the History of Manipur" at page 37 stated that the Khaba dynasty ruled in Manipur before 1st Century AD before Nongda-Lairen Pakhangba, the 1st recognized King of Kangla, ascended the throne in 33 AD.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Tarapot, Phanjoubam (2003). Bleeding Manipur. Har-Anand Publications. p. 92. ISBN 978-81-241-0902-1.
  13. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2011. p. 159.
  14. Tarapot, Phanjoubam (2003). Bleeding Manipur. Har-Anand Publications. p. 96. ISBN 978-81-241-0902-1.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  17. Homen Thangjam (2021-05-19). Manipur KCDO Silver Jubilee Souvenir 2021. pp. 15–16.
  18. Mukherjee, Sujit (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
  19. Mukherjee, Sujit (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
  20. Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. p. 605. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  21. Singh, P. Gunindra (1983). Manipuri Numismatics. Mutua Museum. p. 2.
  22. Devi, Khwairakpam Renuka (2011). "Representation of the Pre-Vaishnavite Culture of the Meiteis: "Cheitharol Kumpapa" of Manipur". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. JSTOR. 72: 501–508. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44146744. Retrieved 2022-09-17.
  23. "Exploring the World's Oldest Polo Ground". WorldAtlas. 2019-03-25. Retrieved 2022-09-17. The first organized Sagol Kangjei match was held in 33 AD under the orders of another Manipuri king, Nongda Pakhangba.
  24. "Passionate strokes". Deccan Herald. 2010-12-11. Retrieved 2022-09-17. The earliest records of Manipuri polo can be found in their The Royal Chronicle, Cheitharol Kumbaba, where friends of Prince Ngonda Lairen Pakhangba played amongst themselves to commemorate his ascending ceremony with his wife Laisana by his side.
  25. Mishra, Aniket. "From Sagol Kangjei to Polo - Recording the evolution of the game in Manipur". www.sportskeeda.com. Sportskeeda. Retrieved 2022-09-17. There are also references to the game of Polo between the friends of Ngonda Lairen Pakhangba, who ascended the throne of Manipur in 33 AD in the Cheitharon Kumpapa (official royal chronicle of the kings of Manipur).
  26. Dhar, Aatreyee (2021-07-01). "The Game Of Polo Was Born In Manipur Before The Britishers Influenced It". ED Times | Youth Media Channel. Retrieved 2022-09-17. The first polo match was organized between the royal friends of "King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba" in 33 A.D.
  27. "Imphal's vanishing ponies trotternama". Hindustan Times. 2011-10-09. Retrieved 2022-09-17. It also gives an account of the first recorded polo match between the royal friends of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 A.D.
  28. Birajit, Soibam (2014-12-01). Meeyamgi Kholao: Sprout of Consciousness. ARECOM ( Advanced Research Consortium, Manipur). p. 92.
  29. Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  30. Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  31. Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 192–193. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Ray, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Satyabrata (2008). Society, Politics, and Development in North East India: Essays in Memory of Dr. Basudeb Datta Ray. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-8069-572-8.
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  35. Mehrotra, Deepti Priya (2009-07-08). Burning Bright Irom Sharmila. Penguin UK. p. 37. ISBN 978-81-8475-153-6.
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  37. 37.0 37.1 Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  38. Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1998). Recent Researches in Oriental Indological Studies: Including Meiteilogy. Parimal Publications. p. 146.
  39. Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar (1994). Bhāratīya Parivāra: Manushya Ke Astitva Ke Lie Vaikalpika Soca. Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya. p. 191.
  40. The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies. Institute of Historical Studies. University of Michigan. 1999. p. 30.
  41. Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Cheirap")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  42. Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Cheirak")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  43. Banerjee, Paula (2008-06-10). Women in Peace Politics. SAGE Publishing India. p. 155. ISBN 978-93-5280-098-8. Laisna, the wife of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, who came to the throne in Kangla of 33 AD. She presided over the Patcha, or the women's court, that dealt with women related crimes.
  44. Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society. The Society. Contributor: Calcutta Historical Society. 1999. p. 83.
  45. Homen Thangjam (2021-05-19). Manipur KCDO Silver Jubilee Souvenir 2021. pp. 15–16.
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  47. 47.0 47.1 The Oxford anthology of writings from North-East India. Volume 2, Poetry and essays. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. 2011. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-19-806749-8.
  48. Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections (Assamese-Dogri). Sahitya Akademi. p. 329. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
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  52. Traditional Performing Arts of North-East India. Assam Academy for Cultural Relations. 1990. pp. 154–155.
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  54. Siṃha, Niṃthaukhoṃjama Khelacandra (1975). Manipuri Language: Status and Importance. N. Tombi Raj Singh. p. 51. The recital of this verse on the occasion of coronation of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 A.D. is recorded in the work Laisrapham.
  55. Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  56. Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  57. Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  58. Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Khung")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
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  62. Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Masil"/"Masin")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
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