Umar

2nd Rashidun Caliph from 634 to 644

ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب, also spelled Omar, c. 583/584 – 644) was the second Rashidun caliph. He ruled from August 634 until his assassination in 644. He succeeded Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. Umar was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was also a father-in-law of Muhammad. Umar was an expert Muslim jurist. He was known for his pious and just nature. It earned him the epithet al-Farooq. This meand "the one who distinguishes (between right and wrong)".

Umar
عمر
Calligraphic representation of Umar's name, with the honorific 'may God Exalted be pleased with him': ʿUmar al-Fārūq, raḍiya Allāh taʿālā ʿanhu
2nd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
Reign23 August 634 – 3 November 644
PredecessorAbu Bakr
SuccessorUthman ibn Affan
Bornc. 583 or 584 CE
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
DiedNovember 644 CE (Dhu al-Hijjah 23 AH/Muharram 24 AH) (aged 60–61)
Medina, Hejaz, Rashidun Caliphate
Burial
Spouse
Issue
(among others)
TribeQuraysh (Banu Adi)
FatherKhattab ibn Nufayl
MotherHantamah bint Hisham
ReligionIslam
SignatureUmar عمر's signature

At first, Umar opposed Muhammad. After his conversion to Islam in 616, Umar became the first Muslim to openly pray at the Kaaba. Umar fought in almost all battles under Muhammad. After Muhammad's death in June 632, Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) as the first caliph. Umar served as the closest adviser to the Bakr until August 634. It was then that the dying Abu Bakr made Umar his successor.

Under Umar, the caliphate expanded. It ruled the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire.[3] His attacks on the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years. Jewish tradition ssays that Umar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and let them into Jerusalem and to worship.[4] Umar was assassinated by the Persian slave Abu Lu'lu'a Firuz in November 644.[a]

Umar is said to be one of the most powerful Muslim caliphs.[6] He is revered in the Sunni Islamic tradition.[7] Some hadiths say he was second greatest of the Sahabah after Abu Bakr.[8][9] He is viewed negatively in the Twelver Shia tradition.[10]

NotesEdit

  1. The date of Umar's death in the Islamic calendar is disputed. Although the sources are unanimous that Umar was stabbed in the last week of Dhu al-Hijjah, he reportedly died a few days later. According to an account of the 8th-century Medinian historian Ibn Ishaq (d. 767), Umar was stabbed on the 27th of Dhu al-Hijjah and died on the 1st of Muharram. In the work of al-Tabari (d. 923), Umar is variously reported to have died on 26th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 27th of Dhu al-Hijjah or the 1st of Muharram.[5]

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Mir'at ul-Oqool. Vol. 21. p. 199.
  2. Al-Tusi, Nasir Al-Din. Al-Mabsoot. Vol. 4. p. 272.
  3. Hourani (1991), p. 23.
  4. Dubnow, Simon (1968). History of the Jews: From the Roman Empire to the Early Medieval Period. Vol. 2. Cornwall Books. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-8453-6659-2.
  5. Smith, 2015 & 93–95.
  6. Ahmed, Nazeer (2000). Islam in global history : from the death of prophet Muhammed to the first World War. Concord, CA: American Institute of Islamic History and Culture. ISBN 0-7388-5963-X.
  7. Bonner, M.; Levi Della Vida, G. "Umar (I) b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. 10 (Second ed.). Brill. p. 820.
  8. "Hadith – Book of Companions of the Prophet – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Sunnah.com.
  9. "Hadith – Book of Companions of the Prophet – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Sunnah.com.
  10. Bonner, M.; Levi Della Vida, G. "Umar (I) b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. 10 (Second ed.). Brill. p. 820. Shi'i tradition has never concealed its antipathy to Umar for having thwarted the claims of Ali and the House of the Prophet.

BibliographyEdit

Other websitesEdit

Umar
Cadet branch of the Quraysh
Born: c.584 Died: 3 November 644
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abū Bakr
Caliph of Islam
Rashidun Caliph

23 August 634 – 3 November 644
Succeeded by
Uthman ibn Affan