Queen Victoria

Queen of the United Kingdom from 1837 to 1901

Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1837 until her death in 1901. She reigned for 63 years and 216 days, until she was surpassed by her great-great granddaughter Queen Elizabeth ll.

Victoria wearing a lace cap and diamond jewellery
Portrait by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901
Coronation28 June 1838
PredecessorWilliam IV
SuccessorEdward VII
Empress of India
Reign1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar1 January 1877
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorEdward VII
BornPrincess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent
(1819-05-24)24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London, England
Died22 January 1901(1901-01-22) (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England
Burial4 February 1901
FatherPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
MotherPrincess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
SignatureCursive signature of Queen Victoria

She was taught by her governess, Louise Lehzen, and Reverend George Davys. She learned to speak and read German and French well. Queen Victoria enjoyed dancing, drawing, horse riding and singing. She had lessons as a child from the famous opera singer Luigi LaBlache. She liked to paint and could play the piano.[1] She kept a regular diary throughout her life.

Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert, in 1840. He supported science, trade and art in Britain. Victoria and Albert had nine children. They believed that a good family life and Christianity were very important. In general, English people followed their example.

The Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace opened in 1851. It happened partly because of Albert's hard work. The exhibition showed the success of British people in Victorian times.

In 1861, Prince Albert died and Victoria stayed away from public life.

Britain became more powerful in the following years, and in 1877, Victoria got the title Empress of India. Victoria was very interested in India, but she never went there to the subcontinent. Her son went there instead.

In 1897, Victoria celebrated 60 years of being monarch. This surpassed her grandfather King George III. She was queen for 63 years, seven months longer than any other king or queen of Britain. People called her the 'grandmother of Europe' because many of Victoria's children became kings, princes and princesses of other countries.

After she died from a brain haemorrhage, her son Albert Edward became King Edward VII became King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 to 6 May 1910.


Name Birth Death Notes
The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November 1840 5 August 1901 Married 1858, Friedrich III, German Emperor and King of Prussia; had children.
King Edward VII 9 November 1841 6 May 1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark; had children.
The Princess Alice 25 April 1843 14 December 1878 Married 1862, Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine; had children.
The Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh 6 August 1844 31 July 1900 Married 1874, Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia; had children.
The Princess Helena 25 May 1846 9 June 1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg; had children.
The Princess Louise 18 March 1848 3 December 1939 Married 1871, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll; no children.
The Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May 1850 16 January 1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia; had children.
The Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April 1853 28 March 1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont; had children.
The Princess Beatrice 14 April 1857 26 October 1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg; had children


Victoria of the United Kingdom's ancestors in three generations
Victoria of the United Kingdom Father:
Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Paternal Grandfather:
George III of the United Kingdom
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Paternal Grandmother:
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Maternal Grandfather:
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Duchess Sophia Antonia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Maternal Grandmother:
Princess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
  1. As monarch, Victoria was Supreme Governor of the Church of England. She was also aligned with the Church of Scotland.


  1. Arnstein, Walter L. "Victoria, Queen of Great Britain." Europe 1789-1914, Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry & Empire. Gale Biography in Context. Web. 10 June 2014.

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