|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1480s 1490s 1500s – 1510s – 1520s 1530s 1540s|
|Years:||1509 1510 1511 – 1512 – 1513 1514 1515|
- April 11 – Battle of Ravenna. French forces under Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours defeat the Spanish under Raymond of Cardona, but Gaston is killed in the fighting.
- October 19 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology [Doctor in Biblia].
- October 21 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
- November 1 – The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo (Michelangelo Buonarroti), is shown to the public for the first time.
- Juan Ponce de León discovers the Turks and Caicos Islands.
- Selim I succeeds Beyazid II as Sultan, ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
- Moldavia is conquered by the Turks.
- Copernicus writes Commentariolus and moves the sun to the center of the solar system.
- First use of the word "masque" to denote a poetic drama.
- Florentine Republic is dismantled and the Medici family comes back into power.
- January 31 – King Henry of Portugal (d. 1580)
- March 5 – Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer (d. 1594)
- April 10 – King James V of Scotland (d. 1542)
- Galeazzo Alessi, Italian architect (d. 1572)
- Henry Balnaves, Scottish politician and religious reformer (d. 1579)
- Patrick Hepburn, 3rd Earl of Bothwell, Scottish renegade (d. 1556)
- Edward Fiennes Clinton, English admiral (d. 1585)
- Marcin Kromer, bishop of Warnia (d. 1589)
- James Lainez, Jesuit General and theologian (d.1565)
- Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII of England (d. 1548)
- Mikolaj Rudy Radziwill, Polish magnate (d. 1584)
- Tabinshwehti, king who unified Burma
- Adrianus Turnebus, French classical scholar (d. 1565)
- Jeronimo Zurita y Castro, Spanish historian (d. 1580)