|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1581 1582 1583 – 1584 – 1585 1586 1587|
- June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.
- July 5 – Maronite College established in Rome
- July 10 – William I of Orange assassinated
- Change to the new Gregorian Calendar in many countries. Dates between October 5 – 14 ignored.
- The first translation of the complete Bible into Slovenian language: Bibilija, tu je vse svetu pismu stariga inu noviga testamenta, slovenski tolmačena skuzi Jurija Dalmatina (Wittenberg), i.e. The Bible, it is a Complete Holy Scripture of the Old and of the New Testament, Translated into Slovenian by Jurij Dalmatin.
- Archangelsk is founded in northern Russia.
- Feodor I succeeds his father Ivan IV as Tsar of Russia
- Latin Book of Concord published in Germany
- Ghent falls to the Spanish.