|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1577 1578 1579 – 1580 – 1581 1582 1583|
- March 1 – Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later the same year.
- June 11 – Juan de Garay founds Buenos Aires.
- June 25 – Publication of the Book of Concord, a collection of Lutheran confessional documents.
- July 12 – Publication of the Ostrog Bible, the first complete printed Bible in a Slavic language.
- September 26 – Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe
- 1580-1764 First session of Jewish Waad (Sejm of 4 countries) in Lublin, Poland. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals met to discuss taxations and other issues important to Jewish communities.
- Portugal loses independence to Spain following the death without heirs of king Henry of Portugal. The Habsburg rule would last until 1640.
- Yermak entered Siberia with a band of 1636 men. Russia begins the conquest of Siberia.