|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1630s 1640s 1650s – 1660s – 1670s 1680s 1690s|
|Years:||1657 1658 1659 – 1660 – 1661 1662 1663|
- Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces.
- Hopkins School is founded. (exact date uncertain)
- January 1 – colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. Samuel Pepys began his diary.
- February 2 – George Monck and his regiment arrive in London
- February 23 – Charles XI becomes king of Sweden.
- February 27 – John Thurloe reinstated as England's secretary of State for a short time
- March 16 – The Long Parliament disbands
- May 8 – The Parliament of England declares Prince Charles Stuart King Charles II of England
- May 15 – John Thurloe arrested for high treason after English Restoration
- May 23 – King Charles II of England reaches the shores of his Kingdom. On May 29 he arrives in London and assumes the throne, marking the beginning of the English Restoration
- May 25 – Charles II of England crowned
- June 29 – John Thurloe released
- November 28 – At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray meet after a lecture by Wren and decide to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning" (later known as the Royal Society).
- Theaters opened again in England – Margaret Hughes debuts as the first female actor as Desdemona in Othello
- Blaise Pascal's The Provincial Letters, a defense of the Jansenist Antoine Arnauld, was ordered shredded and burned by King Louis XIV of France.
- Sweden recovers its southern provinces from Denmark.
- April 16 - Hans Sloane, Irish physician
- May 2 - Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian composer
- May 28 - George I of Great Britain, King of Great Britain and ruler of Hanover in North Germany.
- November 12 - Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro.
- November 28 - Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, mother of Philip V of Spain