Year 1682 was a common year that started on a Thursday when using the Gregorian calendar.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1650s 1660s 1670s – 1680s – 1690s 1700s 1710s|
|Years:||1679 1680 1681 – 1682 – 1683 1684 1685|
|Ab urbe condita||2435|
|Balinese saka calendar||1603–1604|
|English Regnal year||33 Cha. 2 – 34 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)|
4378 or 4318
— to —
壬戌年 (Water Dog)
4379 or 4319
|- Vikram Samvat||1738–1739|
|- Shaka Samvat||1603–1604|
|- Kali Yuga||4782–4783|
|Japanese calendar||Tenna 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||230 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2224–2225|
1808 or 1427 or 655
— to —
1809 or 1428 or 656
- March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England.
- April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.
- April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as "La Louisiane" for France.
- May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
- May 7 – Official beginning of the reign of Peter the Great.
- May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: a mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.
- July 19 – Iyasus succeeds his father Yohannes I as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- August 12 – Vesuvius begins a period of volcanic activity lasting for ten days.
- September – Halley's comet makes an appearance, and is observed by Edmond Halley himself.
- September 14 – Bishop Gore School in Swansea, Wales is founded.
- October 27 – The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn.
- October 31 – The city of Bideford, England two men and one woman were some of the last to be executed for witchcraft in England. They were accused of speaking in unknown languages as well as practicing knowledge beyond their natural abilities, and acting in peculiar manners. The woman, Guenevere Damascus, as well as her lover (name unknown) and their spiritual mentor were burned at the stake.
- The first black slaves arrive in Germany.
- The Richard Wall House is built in Pennsylvania.
- February 25 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (died 1771)
- April 16 – John Hadley, inventor (died 1744)
- June 27 – King Charles XII of Sweden (died 1718)
- July 10 – Roger Cotes, English mathematician (died 1716)
- August 16 – Louis, duc de Bourgogne, heir to the throne of France (died 1712)
- October 29 – Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, French historian (died 1761)
- February 25 – Alessandro Stradella, Italian composer (born 1644)
- March 14 – Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruysdael, Dutch painter (born c.1628)
- April 1 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (born 1625)
- April 3 – Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (born 1618)
- May 7 – Tsar Feodor III of Russia (born 1661)
- July 12 – Jean Picard, French astronomer (born 1620)
- September 8 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish writer (born 1606)
- October 19 – Sir Thomas Browne English writer, physician, and philosopher (born 1605)
- November 19 – Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Royalist commander in the English Civil War (born 1619)
- November 23 – Claude Lorrain French painter (born c.1600)
- date unknown Yohannes I, Emperor of Ethiopia
- date unknown Turhan Hatice, regent of the Ottoman Empire (born 1627)