Alfonso XI of Castile

King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1312 to 1350

Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 – 26 October 1350) nicknamed the Avenger (Spanish: el Justiciero) was the King of Castile and León from 1312 until his death in 1350. His long 38-year reign was one of the most successful in the history of Castile. Like his predecessors, Alfonso was very active in the Reconquista. He conquered Granadans and Marinids after his victory at the Battle of Río Salado in 1340. He also gained control over the Strait of Gibraltar.

Alfonso XI
An artist's depiction of Alfonso
King of Castile and León
Reign7 September 1312 – 26 October 1350
Coronation13 August 1325
PredecessorFerdinand IV
Born13 August 1311
Salamanca, Crown of Castile
Died26 October 1350(1350-10-26) (aged 39)
Gibraltar, Emirate of Granada
Burial26 November 1350
HouseCastilian House of Ivrea
FatherFerdinand IV of Castile
MotherConstance of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureAlfonso XI's signature

Alfonso became king after the death of his father, King Ferdinand IV, in 1312 where Alfonso was only one-year old at the time. During Alfonso's minority, 6 people held the regency: Constance of Portugal, Alfonso's mother, Peter, Lord of Cameros, Alfonso's uncle , John, Lord of Valencia de Campos, Alfonso's granduncle, María de Molina, Alfonso's grandmother, and Philip, Lord of Cabrera and Ribera, Alfonso's other uncle and the brother of Peter.

On Alfonso's 14th birthday on 13 August 1325, he was crowned and his effective rule began. He was a very strong king as he made many successes in the Reconquista. He was also very popular among the Castilians as well as at the end of his rule, Castile was thriving and was one of the most powerful kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula. During his rule, the Black Death strucked Europe as well. Alfonso died as a result of the pandemic on 26 October 1350 in Gibraltar at the age of 39. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Peter.