The Anglo-Dutch Wars (Dutch: Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of wars fought between the Dutch Republic and first the Kingdom of England and then the United Kingdom of Great Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. The nations fought for control over trade routes on the seas. All of the wars were mostly fought by naval warfare.
Dutch attack on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, c. 1667.
Great Britain (1707–)
|Commanders and leaders|
Michiel de Ruyter|
The Duke of York|
Jean II d'Estrées
Fortress, 250 soldiers
|Casualties and losses|
56 warships lost
20 warships captured
10 civilians killed
40 warships lost
18 warships captured
The First War (1652–1654) took place during the Interregnum in England, the period after the Civil War when England did not have a king or queen. The war was fought between the navies of England and the Dutch Republic (also known as the United Provinces). It mainly took place in the English Channel and the North Sea. It ended with the Royal Navy of England gaining control of these seas and a monopoly over trade with the English colonies.
The second (1665–1667) and third (1672–1674) wars happened after the English Restoration of the monarchy. England tried to end the Dutch monopoly over world trade. Most of the fighting in both wars was done in the North Sea. In the Third War, England fought alongside France. Both of these wars ended in strong victories for the Dutch. They confirmed the Dutch Republic's position as the leading maritime power of the 17th century. The English took New Netherland and the Dutch let them keep it in return for Suriname.
The Fourth War (1780–1784) took place after the Acts of Union 1707 in Great Britain, and involved the Dutch Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It mainly started because Britain disagreed with the Dutch trading with the United States during the American Revolutionary War. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris (1784). It ended with a very bad defeat for the Dutch. They lost parts of their Dutch Empire.
- D. R. Hainsworth, et al. (1998) The Anglo-Dutch Naval Wars 1652-1674
- James Rees Jones (1996) The Anglo-Dutch wars of the seventeenth century
- Angus Konstam and Tony Bryan (2011) Warships of the Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-74
- Painting of Anglo-Dutch sea battle, Third War, at the National Maritime Museum, London (in Dutch), NL: Zeeburg nieuws, archived from the original on 2002-10-14, retrieved 2013-07-16.
- National Maritime Museum Archived 2011-12-12 at the Wayback Machine, London.
- Dutch Admiral Michiel de Ruyters' flagship 'The Seven Provinces' Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine is being rebuilt in the Dutch town of Lelystad.
- A short history of the Anglo–Dutch Wars, Contemplator.