Commonwealth of England

historic republic on the British Isles (1649–1660)

The Commonwealth of England was the republican government which ruled first England and then Ireland and Scotland from 1649 to 1660. After the execution of Charles I on January 30, 1649, the Commonwealth was declared (An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth) by the Rump Parliament on May 19, 1649. The government during 1653 to 1659 is properly called The Protectorate, and took the form of direct personal rule by Oliver Cromwell and, after his death, his son Richard, as Lord Protector. The term Commonwealth is, however, loosely used to describe the system of government during the whole of 1649 to 1660, the years of the English Interregnum.

Commonwealth of England
Flag of Commonwealth of England
Top: Flag of the Commonwealth
Bottom: The banner of the republic in the style of the flag of King James I
Coat of arms of Commonwealth of England
Coat of arms
Location of Commonwealth of England
GovernmentRepublic (1649–1653; 1659–1660)
Dictatorship (1653–1659)
• first Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell
• last Lord Protector
Richard Cromwell
• Execution of Charles I
30 January 1649
• Election of Charles II as king
• Total
315,093 km2 (121,658 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Ireland
Today part ofUnited Kingdom, Ireland

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