Battle of Granada

1491 battle in the Granada War

The Battle of Granada was a siege of the city of Granada. It was fought for several months and ended in the surrender of Granada on January 2, 1492. The forces of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile fought against the armies of the Muslim Emirate of Granada.

Battle of Granada
Part of the Reconquista

The Capitulation of Granada, by Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz: Muhammad XII surrenders before Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Oil on canvas, 1882.
DateJanuary 2, 1492
Result Spanish victory
Granada captured by Christian forces
Annexation of last Muslim state in Iberia
Emirate of Granada Crown of Castile
Crown of Aragon
Commanders and leaders
Mahoma XII Isabella

This relatively small campaign was of enormous consequences because Granada was the last outpost of Al-Andalus in Spain and its fall meant the end of 780 years of Muslim control in the Iberian Peninsula. It also was the last act in the Reconquista, the campaign by the medieval Christian states of Spain to drive out the Moorish invaders. After heavy days of fighting, the royal imperial forces of Queen Isabella of Castile marched into the city of Granada and captured it from its last Muslim ruler, Mahoma XII (Muhammad XII). After the capture of the city, Muhammad was invited to the royal tent of the queen and her imperial forces where a formal surrender was issued. After his surrender, Muhammad was ordered by Queen Isabella to leave the Iberian Peninsula and go to North Africa where he was expelled along with the rest of the Muslim of Andalusia. After the capture of Granada, the royal forces hoisted the Castilian flag atop the Alhambra fortified complex palace. The royal tent was then closed and the royal army moved out from Granada and back to the capital of Madrid.

Granada still celebrates the 2nd of January.


  • Mind Alive Encyclopedia of World History, Marshall Cavendish, (London, 1974)