The endocrine system includes those organs of the body which produce hormones. It helps to regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, and plays a part also in mood. The field of medicine that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology.
The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its chemicals using ducts. The endocrine system is an information signal system like the nervous system, yet its effects and mechanism are different.
The endocrine system's effects are slow to start, and long-lasting in their response. The nervous system sends information quickly, and responses are generally short lived. Hormones are complex chemicals released from endocrine tissue into the bloodstream where they travel to target tissues and trigger a response.
Features of endocrine glands are, in general, they have no ducts, they have a good blood supply, and usually they have vacuoles or granules inside their cells, storing their hormones.
Endocrine glands and the hormones they secreteEdit
Central nervous systemEdit
- Hypothalamus produces
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Neuroendocine cells of the Preoptic area
- Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons
- Vasopressin Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons
- Somatostatin (SS; also GHIH, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus
- Prolactin inhibiting hormone or PIH or Dopamine (DA) Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus
- Prolactin releasing hormone
- Pituitary gland (hypophysis) produces
- Anterior pituitary lobe (adenohypophysis)
- Posterior pituitary lobe (neurohypophysis)
- Intermediate pituitary lobe (pars intermedia)
- Thyroid produces
- Parathyroid hormone PTH triggers an increase in blood calcium levels.
- Stomach produces
- Liver produces
- Pancreas produces
- Kidney produces
- Adrenal glands
- Adrenal cortex produces
- Adrenal medulla produces
- Oestrous cycle
- Ovarian follicle/Corpus luteum
- Placenta (when a woman is pregnant)
- Uterus (when a woman is pregnant)
- Heart produces