King of Malaysia

head of state and elective constitutional monarch of Malaysia

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally 'He Who is Made Lord',[2] Jawi: يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ), also known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was created in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a ruling Sultan of a Malaysian state, and is elected for a term of five years.[3]

Supreme Head of the Federation
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ‎
Royal coat of arms
Royal Standard
Sultan Ibrahim

since 31 January 2024
StyleHis Majesty
TypeConstitutional elective federal monarchy
AppointerConference of Rulers
Term lengthFive years, non renewable immediately
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Malaysia, Article 32
Formation31 August 1957; 66 years ago (1957-08-31)
First holderTuanku Abdul Rahman
DeputyDeputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong
SalaryRM1,054,560 annually[1] US$223,069.00 annually

In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper. The constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is given to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority. The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote (Article 40). It, however, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He also can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament (Article 40).[4] He may discontinue or dissolve Parliament (Article 55) but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister (Article 43). He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him (Article 66).[5] The queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty".[6]

The 17th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar of Johor, replacing Sultan Abdullah of Pahang. He was elected on 27 October 2023 by the Conference of Rulers. He took the oath of office and was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January 2024.[7]

Order of seniority of states


Since the first cycle of ten Yang di-Pertuan Agong (1957–1999), the order among the eligible state rulers has followed the order established by that cycle, namely:

  1.   the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan
  2.   the Sultan of Selangor
  3.   the Raja of Perlis
  4.   the Sultan of Terengganu
  5.   the Sultan of Kedah
  6.   the Sultan of Kelantan
  7.   the Sultan of Pahang
  8.   the Sultan of Johor
  9.   the Sultan of Perak
  10.   the Sultan of Brunei


  1. "Civil List Act 1982". Act No. 269 of 1982.
  2. "Malaysia king: Sultan Muhammad V sworn in". BBC. 13 December 2016.
  3. "Explained: Malaysia is the world's only monarchy of its kind. Here's why". The Indian Express. 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  4. "Powers of the king". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  5. "Constitutional Crisis, Crisis of 1983". Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  6. Buyers, Christopher (30 November 2018). "The Kings or Supreme Heads of State". (in Malay). Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  7. Azil, Firdaus (23 January 2019). "The Sultan of Pahang approves the new YDP Agong". (in Malay). Retrieved 2 April 2024.