List of tallest buildings

Wikimedia list article
The tallest buildings in 2020

This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).

Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the ancient tomb - the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years[1] until the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311. Until the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884 the world's tallest buildings were Christian churches and cathedrals in Europe. The early skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago with the 138 ft (42.1 m) Home Insurance Building in 1885, forming the basis for which the United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building throughout the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Towers were completed. Since then only two buildings have held the title: Taipei 101 in 2004 and Burj Khalifa in 2010.[2]

Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Middle East, China, and Southeast Asia have experienced booms in skyscraper construction.

Ranking criteria and alternativesEdit

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] However, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (i.e. 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the worldEdit

As of 2020, this list includes all 75 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 37 are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers had not been destroyed and One World Trade Center never built, the WTC towers would rank 34 and 35 on the list today.

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Name Image City Country Height[9] Floors Year Notes
m ft
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai   United Arab Emirates 828 2,717 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower   Shanghai   China 632 2,073 128 2015 The tallest twisted building.
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Mecca   Saudi Arabia 601 1,971 120 2012 Tallest building with a clock face.
4 Ping An Finance Center   Shenzhen   China 599 1,965 115 2017 Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.
5 Lotte World Tower   Seoul   South Korea 554.5 1,819 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center   New York City   United States 541.3 1,776 104 2014
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Center   Guangzhou   China 530 1,739 111 2016
8 Tianjin CTF Finance Center   Tianjin 530 1,739 98 2018
9 China Zun   Beijing 528 1,732 108
10 Taipei 101   Taipei   Taiwan 508 1,667 101 2004 The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.
11 Shanghai World Financial Center   Shanghai   China 492 1,614 101 2008 Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.
12 International Commerce Centre   Hong Kong 484 1,588 118 2010
13 Central Park Tower   New York City   United States 472 1,550 98 2020 Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September 2019.[10]
14 Lakhta Center   Saint Petersburg   Russia 462 1,516 86 2018 Tallest building in Europe since 2018.[11]
15 Landmark 81   Ho Chi Minh City   Vietnam 461.2 1,513 81 2018
16 Changsha IFS Tower T1   Changsha   China 452.1 1,483 88 2017
17 Petronas Tower 1   Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 451.9 1,483 88 1998 Tallest twin towers in the world; were the world's tallest buildings upon completion in 1998, and the first tallest building since 1908 outside of the United States.
Petronas Tower 2
19 Zifeng Tower   Nanjing   China 450 1,476 89 2010
Suzhou IFS   Suzhou 92 2017
21 The Exchange 106   Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 445.1 1,460 97 2018
22 Willis Tower   Chicago   United States 442.1 1,450 108 1974 Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower. It was the tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998.
23 KK100   Shenzhen   China 442 1,449 100 2011
24 Guangzhou International Finance Center   Guangzhou 440 1,440 103 2010
25 Wuhan Center   Wuhan 438 1,437 88 2016
26 111 West 57th Street   New York City   United States 435.3 1,428 82 2019
27 One Vanderbilt   427 1,401 67 2020
28 Dongguan International Trade Center 1   Dongguan   China 426.9 1,401 88 2019
29 432 Park Avenue   New York City   United States 425.5 1,396 88 2015 Third-tallest residential building in the world.[10]
30 Marina 101 Dubai   United Arab Emirates 425 1,394 101
31 Trump International Hotel and Tower   Chicago   United States 423.2 1,388 98 2009
32 Jin Mao Tower   Shanghai   China 421 1,380 88 1999
33 Princess Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 414 1,358 101 2012
34 Al Hamra Tower   Kuwait City   Kuwait 412.6 1,354 80 2011
35 International Finance Centre   Hong Kong   China 412 1,352 88 2003
36 Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower   Busan   South Korea 411.6 1,352 101 2019
37 Nanning China Resources Tower Nanning   China 402.7 1,321 85 2018
39 Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1[12] Guiyang   China 401 1,316 79 2021
39 China Resources Headquarters   Shenzhen   China 392.5 1,288 67 2017
40 23 Marina Dubai   United Arab Emirates 392.4 1,287 89 2012
41 CITIC Plaza   Guangzhou   China 390.2 1,280 80 1996
42 Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 Shenzhen 388.1 1,273 80 2017
43 30 Hudson Yards   New York City   United States 386.6 1,268 73 2018
44 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh   Saudi Arabia 385 1,263 77 2016
45 Shun Hing Square   Shenzhen   China 384 1,260 69 1996
46 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1   Dalian 383 1,257 81 2015
47 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning 381.3 1,251 82 2017
48 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid   Abu Dhabi   United Arab Emirates 381.2 1,251 88 2014
49 Empire State Building   New York City   United States 381 1,250 102 1931 Tallest building in the world from 1931 until 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world from 1931 to 1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors[17][18]
50 Elite Residence Dubai   United Arab Emirates 380.5 1,248 87 2012
51 Shenzhen Center Shenzhen   China 375.6 1,232 80 2019
52 Central Plaza   Hong Kong 373.9 1,226 78 1992
53 Federation Tower (East Tower)   Moscow   Russia 373.7 1,226 95 2016
54 Dalian International Trade Center Dalian   China 370.2 1,214 86 2018
55 Address Boulevard   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 370 1,214 72 2017
56 Haitian Center Tower 2 [13] Qingdao   China 369 1,211 72 2020
57 Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A Nanjing 368.1 1,208 76 2018
58 Bank of China Tower   Hong Kong 367 1,205 70 1990
59 Bank of America Tower   New York City   United States 365.8 1,200 56 2009
60 Vista Tower   Chicago   United States 362.9 1,191 101 2019
61 Almas Tower   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 360 1,181 68 2009
62 Hanking Center Shenzhen   China 358.9 1,177 65 2017
63 Gevora Hotel   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 356.3 1,169 75 2012
64 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 1,166 82
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 355
66 Emirates Office Tower   354.6 1,163 54 2000
67 Raffles City Chongqing T3N   Chongqing   China 354.5 79 2018
Raffles City Chongqing T4N 2019
69 OKO Tower - South Tower   Moscow   Russia 354 1,160 85 2015
70 The Marina Torch   Dubai   United Arab Emirates 352 1,155 86 2011
71 Forum 66 Tower 1   Shenyang   China 350.6 1,150 68 2015
72 The Pinnacle   Guangzhou 350.3 1,149 60 2012
73 Xi An Glory International Financial Center Xi'an 350 1,148 75 2017

Alternative measurementsEdit

Height to pinnacle (highest point)Edit

 
Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now named Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

If the World Trade Center towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 12 (North Tower at 526.7 m (1,728 ft))[14] and 37 on the list (or 11 and 36, for it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).

Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural

Template:Row indexer

Height to occupied floorEdit

This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building. Template:Row indexer

Buildings under constructionEdit

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction.[15] On-hold buildings whose construction was interrupted after it had reached a significantly advanced state are also listed.

Building Planned architectural height Floors Planned completion Country City Ref.
Jeddah Tower[note 1] 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 167+ ?   Saudi Arabia Jeddah [18]
Merdeka PNB118 656 m (2,152 ft) 118 2021   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [19]
Wuhan Greenland Center[note 2] 606 m (1,988 ft) 115 2021   China Wuhan
Goldin Finance 117[note 2] 597 m (1,959 ft) 117 2022   China Tianjin
Evergrande International Financial Center T1 518 m (1,699 ft) 112 2023   China Hefei [20]
Suzhou Zhongnan Center 499.2 m (1,638 ft) 103 ?   China Suzhou [21]
Greenland Centre 498 m (1,634 ft) 101 2024   China Xi'an [22]
Greenland Jinmao International Financial Center 498 m (1,634 ft) 104 2025   China Nanjing [23]
Wuhan CTF Centre 475 m (1,558 ft) 84 2026   China Wuhan
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2021   China Chengdu
Corporate Avenue 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 99 2022   China Chongqing [24]
Tianshan Gate of the World 450 m (1,480 ft) 106 2025   China Shijiazhuang [25]
Tianjin R&F Guangdong Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 384 m (1,260 ft) 91 2016  China Tianjin
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2021   China Wuhan
Chongqing Tall Tower 431 m (1,414 ft) 101 2022 Chongqing [26]
Shandong IFC 428 m (1,404 ft) 86 Jinan [27]
Nanjing Financial City Tower 1 411 m (1,348 ft) 87 ? Nanjing [28]
Ningbo Center Tower 1 409 m (1,342 ft) 80 2023 Ningbo [29]
Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower 407 m (1,335 ft) 100 2022 Kunming [30]
One Tower 405 m (1,329 ft) 101 2024   Russia Moscow [31]
Evergrande Center 393.9 m (1,292 ft) 71 2024   China Shenzhen [32]
Chengmai Center 388 m (1,273 ft) 70 2022   China Shenzhen [33]
Iconic Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 90 2023   Egypt Cairo [34]
Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower 380 m (1,250 ft) ? 2021   China Guiyang [35]
Guangdong Business Center 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 60 2022 Guangzhou [36]
Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2022   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [37]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 ? Johor Bahru [38]
Xujiahui Center Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 70 2023   China Shanghai [39]
Uptown Tower 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2022   UAE Dubai [40]
Galaxy 1 369 m (1,211 ft) 84   China Shenzhen [41]
Galaxy 2 369 m (1,211 ft) Shenzhen [42]
Ciel Tower 365 m (1,198 ft) 77 2023   UAE Dubai [43]
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft) 90 ?   India Mumbai [44]
Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 360 m (1,180 ft) 74 2023   China Jinan [45]
Huiyun Center[note 2] 359.2 m (1,178 ft) 80 2022   China Shenzhen [46]
Greenland Group Suzhou Center[note 2] 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2020   China Suzhou [47]
Il Primo Tower 1 356 m (1,168 ft) 88 2021   UAE Dubai [48]
Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?   China Harbin [49]

List by continentEdit

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 163 2010   United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014   United States New York City
Europe Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018   Russia St. Petersburg
Australia Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005   Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[50] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012   Chile Santiago
Africa The Leonardo 227 m (745 ft) 55 2019   South Africa Johannesburg[51][52]
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[53] 15 m (49 ft) 2005[54] N/A McMurdo Station

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Marked as under Construction by CTBUH, on-hold according to other sources[16][17]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Structurally Topped Out

ReferencesEdit

  1. Collins, Dana M. (2001). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  2. GmbH, Emporis. "History of the World's Tallest Buildings". EMPORIS. Archived from the original on 2020-06-22. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  4. Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  5. "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  6. Binder, Georges (August 2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Pub. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-86470-173-9.
  7. "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Archived from the original on 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  8. "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  9. "Create Lists/Graphics - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  10. Young, Michael (September 17, 2019). "Central Park Tower Officially Tops Out 1,550 Feet Above Midtown, Becoming World's Tallest Residential Building". New York YIMBY. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  11. Prisco, Jacopo. "Europe's tallest skyscraper nears completion". CNN. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  12. Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  13. Hai Tian Center Tower 2 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  14. One World Trade Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  15. "All Global Buildings". CTBUH. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  16. Jeddah Tower at Emporis
  17. Jeddah Tower at Emporis
  18. "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-12-28.
  19. "Merdeka PNB118 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  20. Evergrande IFC 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  21. Suzhou Zhongnan Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  22. Greenland Centre at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  23. Greenland Jinmao International Financial Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  24. "Corporate Avenue 1 : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  25. Tianshan Gate of the World Plots 27 and 28 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  26. Chongqing Tall Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  27. Shandong IFC at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  28. Nanjing Financial City Phase II Plot C Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  29. Ningbo Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  30. Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  31. One Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  32. Evergrande Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  33. One Chengmai Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  34. Iconic Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  35. Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  36. Guangdong Business Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  37. Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  38. Coronation Square Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  39. Xujiahui Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  40. Uptown Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  41. Galaxy Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  42. Galaxy Tower 2 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  43. Ciel Tower at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  44. "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  45. Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  46. Huiyun Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  47. "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  48. Il Primo Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  49. Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
  50. "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14.
  51. "New Sandton skyscraper is the tallest building in Africa - it offers a view of Magaliesberg". Fin24. September 20, 2019.
  52. "Leonardo in Sandton will be Africa's tallest building | Pretoria News". www.iol.co.za.
  53. Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  54. Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External linksEdit