This article is about the fictional from J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth universe. It includes major regions of the world, geographical features such as rivers, mountains and mountain ranges. The article also included selection of various notable places which were created by Tolkien and used as setting in his many books.
Regions of Middle-earthEdit
- Beleriand: Beleriand was a large region in northwestern Middle-earth until the end of the First Age. It is between the sea in the west and south and the Blue Mountains in the east. At the end of the First Age, Beleriand was destroyed and covered by the sea.
- Eriador: Eriador is a large region in Middle-earth. It is between the Blue Mountains in the west, the Misty Mountains in the east and the Ice-bay of Forochel in the north. The rivers Glanduin and Greyflood form the southern edge of Erindor. In the earlier part of the Third Age much of Eriador was part of the kingdom of Arnor. Apart from Arnor, other settlements in Eriador of the Third Age were Rivendell, Bree-land and the Shire.
- Rhovanion: Rhovanion is a large region in Middle-earth. It is also called Wilderland. The region is east of the Misty Mountains and south of the Grey Mountains and the Iron Hills. The river Anduin flows through it from the Grey Mountains to the Emyn Muil. A big part of Rhovanion is covered by the forest of Mirkwood.
- Rhûn: Rhûn is a large region in Middle-earth. It is east of Rhovanion. The regions is near Sea of Rhûn.
- Harad: Harad or Haradwaith is the lands south of Gondor and Mordor. The coasts of Harad were settled by the Black Númenóreans. These people live in Harad. The were often influenced by Sauron and fought with the western realms. In the Fourth Age, the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor made peace with Harad. The elephant-like mûmakil (or oliphaunts) also live in Harad.
- Amon Hen: Amon Hen (Sindarin: Hill of the Eye) is a hill on the west side of the river Anduin. It is at the southern end of the long lake Nen Hithoel near the Falls of Rauros. On the eastern side of the lake is the hill Amon Lhaw. On Amon Hen, the Fellowship of the Ring was seperated and they went in different directions.
- Ered Luin: Ered Luin (Sindarin: Blue Mountains), also known as Ered Lindonare a mountain range in the far west of Eriador. Until the end of the First Age, the Ered Luin separated Beleriand and Eriador. In the middle of the mountain range is a gap. It formed the Gulf of Lhûn/Lune. The Grey Havens are located there.
- Ered Mithrin: The Ered Mithrin (Sindarin: Grey Mountains) is a range of mountains to the north of Rhovanion. At the western end of the Grey Mountains is Mount Gundabad. It is a part of the Misty Mountains. The Iron Hills are east of this area.
- Ered Nimrais: The Ered Nimrais (Sindarin: Whitehorn Mountains) or White Mountains are a mountain range between Gondor in the south and Rohan in the north. The western part the White Mountains are separated from the Misty Mountains by the Gap of Rohan. The gap is near the valley of Helm's Deep. The Path of the Dead run through the range. The mountain Mindolluin is at the eastern edge of the range. The city of Minas Tirith is in this mountain.
- Misty Mountain: The Misty Mountains (or Sindarin Hithaeglir) are a great mountain range, between Eriador in the west and Rhovanion in the east. At the southern end of the Misty Mountains is Isengard, at the northern end is Mount Gundabad. Under the Misty Mountains is the old dwarven city Khazad-dûm.
- Mount Doom: Mount Doom (Sindarin: Amon Amarth) is a volcano in northeastern Mordor. It is also known as Orodruin (Sindarin: fiery mountain) Inside the volcano are the Sammath Naur (or Cracks of Doom). This is where Sauron made the One Ring. It is also the only place where the Ring can be destroyed.
- Weathertop: Weathertop (Sindarin Amon Sûl, Hill of Wind) is a hill in Eriador. It is the most southern peak of the Weather Hills. It is also the highest peak of the Weather Hills. The Weather Hills are next to the Great East Road. They are about halfway between the Shire and Rivendell. The Tower of Amon Sûl was on Weathertop. It was a watch-tower built by the kingdom of Arnor. THe tower was destroying in year 1409 of the Third Age. There are only ruins left of the tower. In T.A. 3018, Aragorn and the hobbits camped on Weathertop. While they were camped there, they were attacked by the Ringwraiths. Frodo Baggins was wounded by a Morgul-blade.
- Anduin: The Anduin is the largest river in Middle-earth. It begins in the Grey Mountains and flows through Rhovanion and the Emyn Muil. From there, it goes through the rapids of Sarn Gebir and into the lake Nen Hithoel. After it leave the lake, it falls down the Falls of Rauros. Once it is past the falls, the river flows between the White Mountains and the Mountains of Shadow. It then flows into the sea in a broad river delta. This delta is called the Mouths of Anduin or the Ethir Anduin.
- Bruinen: Bruinen or Loudwater was a river in Eriador. It began in the Misty Mountains. It flowed south from the mountains through the valley of Rivendell. From there it flowed into the river Mitheithel.
- Baranduin: The Baranduin or Brandywine River is a river in Eriador. It begins at Lake Evendim in northern Eriador and flows south. The river flows through the Shire and into the sea.
Other Middle-earth locationsEdit
Arnor was a human realm in Eriador. It was founded by Elendil and his people, who survived the Fall of Númenor near the end of the Second Age. The peoples living in Arnor were the descendants of the Númenorean survivors, and the indigenous human peoples who had lived there before. The capital of Arnor was the city Annúminas. It was on the shores of Lake Evendim in northern Eriador. Elendil was the first King of Arnor. After his death, his older son Isildur became king.
After the death of Eärendur, the tenth king, in T.A. 861, his three sons split Arnor into three new lands. Each land a country ruled by one of the sons. These countries were: Arthedain in the west, Cardolan in the south, and Rhudaur in the north. Over time, all three of countries were destroyed in wars against the northern land Angmar. After the War of the Ring, the land again became part of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor. It as ruled by King Elessar Telcontar and his descendants.
Bree-land is a small region in Eriador, It surrounded the Breehill. The region has four villages. They are : Bree , Archet, Combe and Staddle. The peoples living in the villages of Bree-land are humans and hobbits; This is the only place where these two people live together. The only other place where hobbits live is the Shire. Bree is at the meeting point of two large roads, the Great East Road and the North-South Road. It is an important center of trade and travel.
The Lonely Mountain (Sindarin: Erebor) is a mountain in the northeast of Rhovanion. When the dwarves had to leave their ancient home Khazad-dûm, it became the new home of Durin's folk. They were led by Thráin I, who became King under the Mountain. Later Erebor was attacked by the dragon Smaug, and the dwarves had to flee again. In the story told in The Hobbit, the dragon Smaug is killed and the dwarves again return to the Lonely Mountain. Dáin II Ironfoot becomes new King under the Mountain.
Esgaroth is a town in the northeast of Rhovanion. It is also known as Lake-town It is built at the Long Lake. the town is south of the Lonely Mountain and east of Mirkwood. It was destroyed by the dragon Smaug during the events of The Hobbit but was rebuilt.
Fangorn or Fangorn Forest is a large forest on the eastern side of the southern end of the Misty Mountains. Fangorn is the home of the Ents. They are a people of giant tree-like beings. The Sindarin word "Fangorn" translates to "Beardtree", Fangoen is also the Sindarin name of the Ent Treebeard.
Gondor is a human realm in southeastern Middle-earth. It was founded by the brothers Isildur and Anárion and their people, who had survived the Fall of Númenor near the end of the Second Age. During the Third Age, Gondor included the lands beween the sea in the south, the Mountains of Shadow in the east, and the White Mountains in the north. In earlier times, The lands of Gondor reached farther north. The city Osgiliath was the capital of Gondor. It was built over the river Anduin. Isildur also founded the city Minas Ithil. His brother Anárion founded the city Minas Anor west of the Anduin on the mountain Mindolluin.
Gondor has several regions. Ithilien is in the east, It is between the river Anduin in the west and the Mountains of Shadow in the east. Anórien was a small land north of the White Mountains. It is between the river Anduin in the east and Rohan in the west. Calenardhon is the land north of the White Mountains. It became Rohan in the 26th century T.A. Enedwaith was northwest of the White Mountains. This region was mostly abandoned in the later part of the Third Age. Between the coast and the White Mountains were several smaller regions. Near the seashore in the south were the regions Anfalas, Belfalas, Dor-en-Ernil, Lebennin, and Lossarnach. Along the Mountains in the north were the Morthond Vale, Lamedon, and the Ringló Vale. Southeast of the Anduin was the region South Gondor.
After the War of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men against Sauron, Isildur left to rule the northern kingdom Arnor. The son of Anárion stayed to rule Gondor. During a civil war In the 15th century, the city Osgiliath was destroyed. Minas Anor became the new capital. The Ringwraiths captured Minas Ithil during the rule of King Eärnur. They changed the name of the city to Minas Morgul. Minas Anor was renamed Minas Tirith ("Tower of Guard"). Both cities were always at war. Much of the fighting took place near the old capital of Osgiliath. During the War of the Ring, Sauron won control of Western Osgiliath. This made it possible for his forces to attack Minas Tirith. The Orcs attacked the city but were stopped by the Rohirrim. This let the defenders to charge the enemy. The Battle of the Pelennor Fields was won by the Men of Gondor and Rohan.
The last King, Eärnur, disappeared in 2050 T.A. After this, Gondor was ruled by the Stewards of Gondor instead of a king until the end of the Third Age. After the War of the Ring, the land became part of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor. It was ruled by King Elessar Telcontar and his descendants.
Great East RoadEdit
The Great East Road is an ancient road which was made by the dwarves. The road ran from western area of the region Beleriand, over the Ered Luin mountain range, through the Shire, to the Misty Mountains, and to the dwarven lands in the east.
Helm's Deep is a deep valley on the north side of the western part of the White Mountains. It is south to the Gap of Rohan. The valley was blocked by a series of hills called Helm's Dike. Helm's Deep is the location of the fortress, Hornburg. The entrance to the Glittering Caves is at the end of the valley.
Isengard is a fortress at the southern end of the Misty Mountains. It is in a small valley inside a ring-shaped wall. The wall is called, the Ring of Isengard. In the fortress is a tall black tower, Orthanc. Isengard belonged to Gondor but in the 28th century it was given to Saruman. The fortress has a palantír. A palantir is ball made of indestructible crystal that is used for communicating with other places. In the War of the Ring, ring-wall was destroyed by the Ents. After the War, the tower Orthanc was given back to King Elessar and the Reunited Kingdom.
Khazad-dûm was the ancient home of the Dwarves under the Misty Mountains. It was a large underground city. It also has a system of mines under it. The city was the only place in Middle-earth where the precious metal mithril could be found. This made the dwarves very rich. Khazad-dûm was founded by Durin the Deathless early in the First Age.
In the Third Age, the dwarves woke a Balrog deep in the mines of Khazad-dûm. The Balrog killed King Durin VI and many Dwarves. The dwarves that were not killed were forced to leave Khazad-dûm and find other places to life. Khazad-dûm got a new name, Moria. In Sindarin. Moria means "dark pit".
Lothlórien was an elven realm. It was between the Misty Mountains and the Anduin. The realm was on the land between the rivers Anduin and Silverlode. It was close to the dwarven realm Khazad-dûm. Lothlórien was founded in the Second Age. Amdír was the first King of Lothlórien. The elves of Lothlórien fought in the War of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men against Sauron. In the war, Amdír was killed. His son Amroth became king after him. Amroth later left Lothlórien. After he left, the realm was ruled by Lord Celeborn and Lady Galadriel until the end of the Third Age. Caras Galadhon was the main city of Lothlórien. Other names of Lothlórien are the shortened nameLórien, and the names Laurelindórenan, Dwimordene (Rohirric), or The Golden Wood.
Mordor (Sindarin: Black Land and Quenya: Land of Shadow) is a land in the southeastern part of Middle-earth. It is east of the Anduin. Mordor was the land of Sauron in the Second and Third Ages. Mordor is surrounded by mountain ranges. The Ered Lithui (Sindarin: "Mountains of Ash") is a range of mountains to the north of Mordor. The Ephel Dúath (Sindarin: Mountains of Shadow) is west of it, Another mountain range in the south. In the northwest is the plateau named Gorgoroth. Sauron's main fortress, Barad-dûr, is at the base of the Ered Lithui mountains. The volcano Mount Doom is south west of Barad-dûr. Many parts of Mordor are a wasteland. The southern part of Mordor, around the Sea of Núrnen was more fertile. It was used as farmland to feed the armies of Sauron.
In the Second Age, an Elven people settled in the Greenwood. They created the Woodland Realm. The capital of the realm was on the hill Amon Lanc. After the Second Age, the Elves went to live farther north. In the 11th century T.A., Sauron chose to live in the hill-fortress of Dol Guldur on Amon Lanc. It was in the south of the forest. His evil influence darkened the woods. It had less of an effect towards the north of the forest. After this, the Greenwood became known as Mirkwood. After the War of the Ring, evil effects of Sauron's influence were removed from the forest. It known as Eryn Lasgalen (Sindarin: "Wood of Greenleaves").
The North-South Road is a long road running from the realm of Arnor in the north to Gondor in the south. The road begins in the city Fornost Erain, the capital of Arthedain. It crossesthe Great East Road at Bree, and runs to the southern end of the Misty Mountains. There, the road turned east, towards the cities of Minas Tirith and Osgiliath in Gondor. The road ended at Minas Ithil. A part of the road south of Bree is also known as the Greenway.
Rohan or the Riddermark (or The Mark) was a human realm in southeastern Middle-earth. It was north of Gondor. Rohan was north of the White Mountains, southeast of Isengard and southwest of the Emyn Muil. It began as a part of Gondor named Calenardhon. The capital of Rohan is Edoras. The king's hall, Meduseld, is at Edoras.
A plague in 1636 T.A. and the later wars, caused Calenardhon to be mostly empty. Very few people lived there. In 2509 T.A. the Rohirrim came south from the north, to help Gondor fight against an invasion of Men from the north-east and Orcs from Mordor. The Rohirrim helped Gondor win the Battle of the Field of Celebrant and the war. Steward Cirion of Gondor gave the land Calenardhon to the Rohirrim. The King of the Rohirrim, Eorl the Young, swore the Oath of Eorl. He said that Rohan would come and help Gondor if it needed help in war. Afterwards, the people of the Rohirrim moved into their new land. They changed the name to the Riddermark or just The Mark. Gondor called the land Rohan (Sindarin: "Land of the Horse-lords").
The Shire is a land in Eriador. It is settled by hobbits. Its name in Westron was Sûza "Shire" or Sûzat "The Shire". Its name in Sindarin was i Drann. The Shire was settled by the hobbits in the 24th century T.A. It is divided into four Farthings: the North-, West-, South- and Eastfarthing. The leaders of the Shire were the Mayor of Michel Delving, the Thain from Tuckborough and the Master of Buckland.
Númenor was a huge star-shaped island west of Middle-earth in the Second Age. At the beginning of the Age it was given to the human peoples who had helped the elves in the wars against Morgoth. In the middle of the island was the mountain Meneltarma. It was a holy place for the Númenoreans. Númenor was divided into six regions. Each region was in one of each of the five "star-arm" and one in the middle. The outer regions were Forostar ("Northlands"), Andustar ("Westlands"), Hyarnustar ("Southwestlands"), Hyarrostar ("Southeastlands") and Orrostar ("Eastlands") The central region was Mittalmar ("Inlands"). In the eastern part of the central region was Arandor ("Kingsland"). the capital city Armenelos and the haven Rómenna.
Their first king of Númenor was Elros Tar-Minyatur. He was the brother of Elrond. Númenor became the most powerful nation of Men. As time passed, many Númenoreans, including their kings, became power-hungry. They became enemies of the elves. Towards the end of the Second Age, Númenor was ruled by King Ar-Pharazôn the Golden. During that time, the island was destroyed and sank in the sea. Only a group of Númenoreans led by Elendil, the Elendili ("Elf-friends") or the Faithful, were not destroyed with the island. They came to Middle-earth and founded the realms Arnor and Gondor. The Akallabêth is the story of Númenor's history and downfall.
Some of the many names of Númenor were Westernesse, Númenórë (Quenya, the long form of Númenor) and Anadûnê (Adûnaic), both meaning "West-land"; Andor (Quenya) and Yôzâyan (Adûnaic), which both mean "the Land of the Gift". Later it was also called Atalantë (Quenya) and Akallabêth (Adûnaic), both meaning "the Downfallen".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Middle-earth locations.|
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954). The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395082544.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954). The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395082544.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955). The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395082560.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977). Tolkien, Christopher (ed.). The Silmarillion. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395257301.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1989). Tolkien, Christopher (ed.). The Treason of Isengard. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395515629.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (2002). Anderson, Douglas A. (ed.). The Treason of Isengard. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618134700.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980). Tolkien, Christopher (ed.). Unfinished Tales. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395299179.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996). Tolkien, Christopher (ed.). The Peoples of Middle-earth. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395827604.