Musi language

Malayic variety spoken in southern Sumatera

Musi, or also known as Musai[c] is an Austronesian language spoken by the Musi people.

Musi
Basé Musi
ꤸꥇꤾꥇ ꤸꥈꤼꥎꥁꥇ[a]
Miling Musai[b]
Native toIndonesia
RegionSoutheast Sumatra
Ethnicity
Native speakers
(L1: 397,977 cited 1981 census)
L1 & L2: ~553,034[2]
Standard forms
Standard Musi
Dialects
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byLanguage Development and Fostering Agency
Development bodySouth Sumatra Linguistic Center[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-2mui
ISO 639-3mui
mui Musi
Glottologmusi1241
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Speakers

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Musi people are the indigenous ethnic group native to the Musi regions (the regencies of Musi Banyuasin, Musi Rawas, North Musi Rawas, and Banyuasin)— in the southeastern Sumatra, Indonesia.[1]

Musi language is the first language of Musi people who natively lives at the Babat Toman, the Sungai Lilin, the Bayung Lencir, and the Sekayu districts of Musi Banyuasin, also in the Banyuasin III district of Banyuasin Regency.

Morphology

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Word type

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The classification of words in Musi language is not based on the semantics (meaning), but on the basis of their structural characteristics, namely according to their distribution in phrases or sentences. Words that have the same distribution and behavior are grouped into one type of word.

Based on the data obtained, words in the Musi language can be grouped into three groups, namely:

  1. Nominal words
  2. Adjectives
  3. Particle words

Word formation process

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Word formation in Musi language can occur in three ways, namely:

  1. Affixation
  2. Repetition or reduplication
  3. Compounding or composites

Vowels

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front central back
close i u
mid e ə o
open a

In closed syllables, /i/ and /u/ are realized as [ɪ] and [ʊ], respectively.[4][5]

Consonants

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bilabial alveolar postalv./
palatal
velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ ŋ
stop voiceless p t t͡ʃ k ʔ
voiced b d d͡ʒ g
fricative voiceless f s h
voiced z sj ɣ~r
approximant semivowel w j
lateral v l kh

Syntax

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The analysis of the syntactic structure of Musi language is divided into two main parts, namely the syntactic structure and the sentence type.[6]

Syntax structure

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The syntactic structure or syntax of Musi language can be divided into four main groups, namely:

  1. Modification structure
  2. Predication structure
  3. Complementation structure
  4. Coordination structure

The description of each of these structures will be clearly seen in the following descriptions. Each structure will be described in detail and the patterns will be illustrated through examples in Musi language's speech.

Sample text

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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The following texts are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Musi language along with the original declaration in English.

English[7] Musi
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Waqa Rami Aq-aq Wang Galéq
Article 1 Jo Kesikoq
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Wang galéq laeq madiqa ngén aji toboq lagi aq-aqnyé simbang. Galéq ugang tu beqati ngén akal lagi ati ngén sabaeqnyé bagawé galéq badoloran.

Parable of the Prodigal Son

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The following texts are the Parable of the Prodigal Son in Musi language along with its translation in English.

Musi Translation
Lukas 15 Luke 15
11 11
Yase neroské: “Nulu adé reman nyang banaq lanang dué; Jesus continued: “There was a man who had two sons;
12 12
jé nyang mudé munyi ka baqnyé, ‘Baq, enjoqké paroh ontongku.’ Liwat dié ngenjoq rétényé padé ugang tu. and the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the share of property that falls to me.‘ And he divided his living between them.
13 13
Daq lamé dai agai tu, nyang mudé mulau galeq rétényé ngén bajalan ka negeri jao, ngén sié-sié rétényé kené gawenyé royal nia. Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took his journey into a far country, and there he squandered his property in loose living.
14 14
Sedé rétényé abés galéq ikaq, kaboloqan basoq ngumban situ, ngén dié mula sage. After he had spent everything, there was a severe famine in that whole country, and he began to be in need.
15 15
Kanian dié kélégo ngén nontot gawe ka ugang situ, bagawe ngenjoq maqan sabawa.

So he went and hired himself out to a citizen of that country, who sent him to his fields to feed pigs.

16 16
Dié sage sampay kaq tomtom sabawa, tapi daq adé nyang ngeleq.

He longed to fill his stomach with the pods that the pigs were eating, but no one gave him anything.

17 17
“Waktu dié ngelamun, dié munyi, ‘baqku banyaq bapola, ngén ku sikaq nyera kaboloqan!

“When he came to his senses, he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have food to spare, and here I am starving to death!

18 18
Ku naq baléq ka baqku ngén bakaté: Baq, ku la badoso daq maraji ka sergé lagi nga.

I will set out and go back to my father and say to him: Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you.

19 19
Ku daqlagi pantas dipanggél anaq lanang nga; buwatké ku caq sikoq budaq nyang nga ajaq.

I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me like one of your hired servants.’

20 20
Laju dié cagaq pegi baléq ka baqnyé. “Tapi mase separo jalan, baqnyé ngeleq ngén aséq pegiatén; dié ubar anaq lanangnyé, meloq lagi nyiomnyé.

So he got up and went to his father. “But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and was filled with compassion for him; he ran to his son, threw his arms around him and kissed him.

21 21
“Anaq lanang tu munyi ka baqnyé, ‘Baq, ku la badoso daq maraji ka sergé lagi nga. Ku daqlagi pantas dipanggél anaq lanang nga.’

“The son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’

22 22
“Tapi baqnyé munyi ka budaqnyé, ‘Gancang! Undé tajoq paléng bajeq lagi pakaiké ka dié. Pasangké céncén ka jagainyé lagi selop ka kakinyé.

“But the father said to his servants, ‘Quick! Bring the best robe and put it on him. Put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet.

23 23
Undé sapi nyang gemoq lagi bono. Payo bapista lagi rayaké.

Bring the fattened calf and kill it. Let’s have a feast and celebrate.

24 24
Ontoq anaq lanangku nyang la mati gidop baléq; nyang la ilang sua mikaq. Kanian ugang galéq mula rayaké.

For this son of mine was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.’ So they began to celebrate.

Simple conversation

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Here are examples of simple conversation in Musi language:

Standard Musi Translation
Oi, dolor! naméq kaba? Hello, bro/sis! how are you?
Baq ngén umaq duma? Did your parents at home?
Ku ladas nia néléq nga! I am so happy to see you!
Amaisoq kelangan, payo pléséq! Tomorrow is weekend, let's go on vacation!

Bibliography

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  • Morfologi dan Sintaksis Bahasa Musi [Morphology and Syntax of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1985.
  • Pemetaan bahasa-bahasa daerah di Sumatera Selatan [Languages Mapping in South Sumatra] (in Indonesian). Palembang: South Sumatra Linguistic Center. 2017. ISBN 978-602-14-9454-7. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  • Struktur Bahasa Musi [The Structure of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1981.
  • Dunggio, P.D. (1983). Struktur Bahasa Musi [The Structure of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia.
  • Struktur Sastra Lisan Musi [Musi Oral Literature Structure] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1989. ISBN 978-979-459-031-7.
  • Struktur Sastra Lisan Musi [Musi Oral Literature Structure] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1989.
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia (Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010) [Citizenship, Ethnicities, Religions, and Languages of the Indonesian Population (Results of the 2010 Population Census)] (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Central Bureau of National Statistics of the Republic of Indonesia, 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Struktur Bahasa Musi [The Structure of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1981.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pemetaan bahasa-bahasa daerah di Sumatera Selatan [Languages Mapping in South Sumatra] (in Indonesian). Palembang: South Sumatra Linguistic Center. 2017. ISBN 978-602-14-9454-7. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. Dunggio, P.D. (1983). Struktur bahasa Melayu Palembang [The structure of Palembang Malay] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
  5. Struktur Bahasa Musi [The Structure of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1981.
  6. Morfologi dan Sintaksis Bahasa Musi [Morphology and Syntax of Musi Language] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Linguistic Development Agency, Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic Indonesia. 1985.
  7. "OHCHR -". www.ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  1. The "Miling Musai" (sometimes also spelled as Miling Musei) written in Rejang script (native script of Rejang language). Miling Musai which literally means "Musi language" is an exonym terminology given by the Rejang people (the neighboring ethnic group of Musi people) to addressed the language spoken by the Musi people.
  2. The "Miling Musai" (sometimes also spelled as Miling Musei) which literally means "Musi language" is an exonym terminology given by the Rejang people (the neighboring ethnic group of Musi people) to addressed the language spoken by the Musi people.
  3. The term "Musai" (sometimes also spelled as Musei) is an exonym term given by the Rejang people (the neighboring ethnic group of Musi people) to addressed the Musi people as well as their spoken language.

Other websites

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