Voiced alveolar plosive

consonantal sound

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨d⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨d⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by "d" in dear and desk.

Voiced alveolar plosive
d
IPA number104
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d
Unicode (hex)U+0064
X-SAMPAd
Kirshenbaumd
Sound

 

FeaturesEdit

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiced. This means that the vocal cords vibrate while the sound is being pronounced.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is alveolar. This means that this sound is produced with the tip of the tongue (apical) or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge (laminal).
  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

ExamplesEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning
Adyghe дахэ/daahė [daːxa] 'pretty'
Assyrian ܘܪܕܐ werda [wεrda] 'flower'
Bengali ডা/ḍab [d̠ab] 'green coconut'
Catalan[1] susdit [sʊzˈd̻it̪] 'said before'
Czech do [do] 'into'
Dutch[2] dak [dɑk] 'roof'
English Most speakers dash [ˈdæʃ] 'dash'
Finnish sidos [ˈsido̞s] 'bond'
Greek ντροπή / dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame'
Hebrew דואר/ do'ar [ˈdo̞.äʁ̞] 'mail'
Hungarian adó [ˈɒdoː] 'tax'
Kabardian дахэ/ daahė [daːxa] 'pretty'
Korean 아들 / adeul [ɐdɯl] 'son'
Kurdish Northern diran [dɪɾä:n] 'tooth'
Central ددان/ dadân [dædä:n]
Southern دیان/dîân [diːä:n]
Luxembourgish[3] brudder [ˈb̥ʀudɐ] 'brother'
Malay Standard (incl. Malaysian) dahan [dähän] 'branch'
Indonesian[4]
Kelantan-Pattani [dahɛː]
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Thai ดาว/ dāw [daːw] 'star'
Welsh diafol [djavɔl] 'devil'
West Frisian doarp [ˈdwɑrp] 'village'
Yi /dda [da˧] 'competent'
Yonaguni 与那国 / dunan [dunaŋ] 'Yonaguni'

NotesEdit

  1. Rafel Fontanals (1999), p. 14.
  2. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  3. Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  4. Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.

ReferencesEdit

  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X, S2CID 243772965
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 209–213, doi:10.1017/s0025100308003320