Sher Shah Suri
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Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 22 May 1545) born Farid Khan, was the Pashtun founder of the short lived Pashtun Suri or Sur kingdom in the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Patna in Bihar and later Delhi.
The title Sher Khan was impressed upon him after he singlehandedly fought against a lion while serving under Afghan noble Bahar Khan Lohani. Farid Khan was a talented and fearless soldier. His father Hasan Khan was a jagirdar under Bahar Khan Lohani, a noble who served under the ruler of Delhi. Farid Khan succeeded his father to become the Jagirdar and soon he rebelled and successfully overthrew the Mughal Emperor Humayun in 1540.
He ruled until 1545 when he died in a gunpowder explosion. He left a strong empire to his son Islam Shah Suri, who ruled for nine years and was succeeded by his son Firoz Khan who was murdered. His son and followers could not keep for long the control of the kingdom and in 1555 the Mughal prince Humayun recaptured the lost Mughal territory and reinstates himself as Emperor after defeating Islam Shah in Punjab, thus effectively ending the Suri dynasty.
Sher Shah was a good general and administrator. He introduced a new currency, a silver coin known as 'Rupia'. He reduced custom duties and built an excellent connection of roads, including Grand Trunk Road in Bihar, which was 1,600 miles (2500 Kilometers) long. Sher Shah was a secular ruler who practised tolerance and welfare.