Warsaw Pact

international military alliance of Eastern European states (1955–1991)

The Warsaw Pact, officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was an organization of Central and Eastern European socialistic and people’s democracy states. The states were all allies and would fight together if one of them was attacked. While in theory all the countries in the organisation were equals, the smaller countries were controlled by the Soviet Union.[1] The countries in the Warsaw Pact were East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania however Albania withdrew in 1968 following the 1968 Warsaw Pact Invasion Of Czechoslovakia and so did Romania.

Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance
The WTO in 1990
AbbreviationWTO, WAPA, DDSV
MottoUnion of peace and socialism
Founded14 May 1955 (1955-05-14)
Founded atWarsaw, Poland
Dissolved1 July 1991 (1991-07-01)
TypeMilitary alliance
HeadquartersMoscow, Soviet Union
AffiliationsCouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance
The political situation in Europe during the Cold War.
Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about financial liability in air travel, and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the People's Republic of Poland.

It was established in 1955 in Warsaw, Poland in response to West Germany joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The treaty was signed in Warsaw, on 14 May 1955 and official copies were made in the languages of Russian, Polish, Czech, and German. The Pact lasted until the end of the Cold War when some members quit in 1991, following the collapse of the Eastern bloc and political changes in the Soviet Union.[2]

All of these countries, except the Soviet Union, have now joined NATO.

Members change

Most member states were considered puppet states of the Soviet Union. Additionally, Mongolia, North Korea, Vietnam and (until 1961) China were observer states.

Country Status
  Albania (until 1968) Puppet state (until 1961)
Independent (1961-1968)
  Bulgaria Puppet state
  Czechoslovakia Puppet state
  East Germany Puppet state
  Hungary Puppet state
  Poland Puppet state
  Romania Puppet state (before the 1960s)
Independent (after the 1960s)
  Soviet Union Main contributor

References change

  1. "Warsaw Pact and NATO: Warsaw pact communiqué December 1971". Survival. 14 (2): 78–79. March 1972. doi:10.1080/00396337208441319. ISSN 0039-6338.
  2. Sardemann, Gerhard (2010-08-01). "Die Welt aus den Angeln heben". TATuP - Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Theorie und Praxis. 19 (2): 8–17. doi:10.14512/tatup.19.2.8. ISSN 2199-9201.


  1. Withheld support in 1961 due to the Soviet–Albanian split, but formally withdrew in 1968.