|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1490s 1500s 1510s – 1520s – 1530s 1540s 1550s|
|Years:||1519 1520 1521 – 1522 – 1523 1524 1525|
- January 9 – Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI.
- February 26 – Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés.
- April 22 – Battle of Bicocca – French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, and are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory.
- July 28 – Beginning of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I's siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.
- September 6 – The Vittoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world.
- December 18 – The Turks finally break into Rhodes, but the Knights continue fierce resistance in the streets.
- December 20 – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta and become known as the Knights of Malta.
- First Diet of Nuremberg.
- The third edition of the Textus Receptus of the Bible published.