|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1490s 1500s 1510s – 1520s – 1530s 1540s 1550s|
|Years:||1524 1525 1526 – 1527 – 1528 1529 1530|
- January 5 – Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, is drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church.
- May 6 – Spanish and German troops led by the Duke of Bourbon sack Rome (the infamous Sacco di Roma), forcing Pope Clement VII to make peace with Charles V.
- May 16 – Florentines drive out the Medici for a second time and Florence re-establishes a republic.
- Spanish conquest of Guatemala highlands completed; first Guatemala City founded (Ciudad Vieja).
- Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Montejo invades Yucatán.
- Battle of Tokay: Ferdinand of Austria defeats John Zapolya and takes over most of Hungary. John appeals to the Turks for help.
- Protestant Reformation begins in Sweden.
- Ahmed Gragn of Somalia defeats the Ethiopian army with his new firearms.
- People of the University of Wittenberg flee plague to Jena.
- Bishop Vesey's Grammar School in Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, UK is founded by Bishop John Vesey.
- March 21 – Hermann Finck, German composer and music theorist (died 1558)
- April 14 – Abraham Ortelius, cartographer and geographer (died 1598)
- July 13 – John Dee, English mathematician, astronomer, and geographer (died 1608)
- July 31 – Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (died 1576)
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian artist (died 1593)
- Charles of Guise, French Cardinal and member of the powerful House of Guise (died 1574)
- Lawrence Humphrey, president of Magdalen College, Oxford (died 1590)
- Luis Ponce de León, Spanish lyric poet (died 1591)
- Sakuma Nobumori, Japanese retainer and samurai (died 1581)
- Annibale Padovano, Italian composer and organist (died 1575)
- Philip II of Spain
- January 21 – Juan de Grijalva, Spanish conquistador (born 1489)
- June 21 – Niccolò Machiavelli, Italian writer and statesman (born 1469)
- July 28 – Rodrigo de Bastidas, Spanish conquistador and explorer (born 1460)
- Boabdil, last Moorish king of Granada (of the Nasrid dynasty)
- Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, Count of Montpensier and Dauphin of Auvergne (born 1490)
- Francesco Colonna, Italian Dominican priest (born 1433)
- Thomas Docwra, Grand Prior of the Knights Hospitaller (born 1458)
- Felix Manz, co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren Anabaptist congregation in Zürich
- Cristoforo Solari, Italian sculptor and architect
- Jan "Ciezki" Tarnowski, Polish nobleman