|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1610s 1620s 1630s – 1640s – 1650s 1660s 1670s|
|Years:||1646 1647 1648 – 1649 – 1650 1651 1652|
- January 30 – King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. His widow Henrietta Maria lives in her native France.
- January 30 – The Commonwealth of England, a republican form of government, replaces the monarchy as the form of government of England and later of Scotland and Ireland. Members of the Long Parliament serve as government.
- January 30 – Prince Charles Stuart declares himself King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. At the time all three Kingdoms had not recognized him as ruler.
- February 5 – In Edinburgh, Scotland claimant King Charles II of England is declared King in his absence. Scotland is the first of the three Kingdoms to recognize his claim to the throne.
- March 11 – The Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government sign the Peace of Rueil.
- March 19 – The House of Commons pass an act abolishing the House of Lords, declaring that it is "useless and dangerous to the people of England".
- May 17 – Banbury mutiny ends – leaders of the Leveller mutineers in the New Model Army are hanged
- May 19 – An act declaring England to be a Commonwealth is passed by the Rump Parliament.
- Robert Blake is promoted to become an Admiral of the English fleet
- August 15 – Admiral Robert Blake blockades Prince Rupert to allow Oliver Cromwell to land in Dublin and begin the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
- September 2 – The Italian city of Castro is completely destroyed by the forces of Pope Innocent X, ending the Wars of Castro.
- Unknown date – Urga founded (now Mongolian capital)
- Digger movement crushed at St George's Hill
- February 2 – Pope Benedict XIII
- February 8 – Gabriel Daniel, French Jesuit historian
- February 11 – William Carstares, Scottish minister
- April 5 – Elihu Yale, American benefactor of Yale University
- April 9 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland
- June 13 – Adrien Baillet, French scholar and critic
- July 23 – Pope Clement XI
- September 15 – Titus Oates, English minister and plotter
- December 7 – Charles Garnier, French Jesuit missionary
- January 30 – King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland (executed)
- March 9 – James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, Scottish statesman
- March 9 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (executed)
- March 16 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary
- March 19 – Gerhard Johann Vossius, German classical scholar and theologian
- March 26 – John Winthrop First Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
- May 14 – Friedrich Spanheim, Dutch theologian
- June 3 – Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Portuguese historian and poet
- September 6 – Robert Dudley, styled Earl of Warwick, English explorer and geographer
- September 15 – John Floyd, English Jesuit preacher
- October 3 – Giovanni Diodati, Swiss Protestant clergyman
- October 16 – Isaac van Ostade, Dutch painter
- November 19 – Caspar Schoppe, German scholar
- December 4 – William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet
- December 8 – Noël Chabanel, French Jesuit missionary