Year 1681 was a common year that started on a Wednesday when using the Gregorian calendar.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1650s 1660s 1670s – 1680s – 1690s 1700s 1710s|
|Years:||1678 1679 1680 – 1681 – 1682 1683 1684|
|Ab urbe condita||2434|
|Balinese saka calendar||1602–1603|
|English Regnal year||32 Cha. 2 – 33 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚申年 (Metal Monkey)|
4377 or 4317
— to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4378 or 4318
|- Vikram Samvat||1737–1738|
|- Shaka Samvat||1602–1603|
|- Kali Yuga||4781–4782|
|Japanese calendar||Enpō 9 / Tenna 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||231 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2223–2224|
1807 or 1426 or 654
— to —
1808 or 1427 or 655
- March 14 – Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.
- October 28 – A London woman is publicly flogged for the crime of "involving herself in politics."
- August 31 – Titus Oates is told to leave his state apartments in the Whitehall – his fame begins to wane and he is soon arrested and imprisoned for sedition.
- August 12 – The Ahom King Gadadhar Singha or Gadapani, who took the Tai name Supaatphaa, ascends the throne.
- December – Wu Shifan, the grandson of the Chinese general Wu Sangui, commits suicide in Yunnan province, ending the eight year conflict of the Revolt of the Three Feudatories against Qing Dynasty authority in China, then led by the Kangxi Emperor.
- France annexes the city of Strasbourg.
- The last dodo bird is killed.
- Collections are made in England for needy French refugees.
- March 14 – Georg Philipp Telemann, German composer (died 1767)
- June 26 – Hedwig Sophia, duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish writer (died 1708)
- September 11 – Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, German jurist (died 1741)
- September 28 – Johann Mattheson, German composer (died 1764)
- November 17 – Pierre François le Courayer, French theologian (died 1776)
- November 28 – Jean Cavalier, French Protestant rebel leader (died 1740)
- January 28 – Richard Allestree, English royalist churchman (born 1619)
- March 12 – Frans van Mieris, Sr., Dutch painter (born 1635)
- May 25 – Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish dramatist and poet (born 1600)
- July 1 – Oliver Plunkett, Irish saint (born 1629)
- July 25 – Urian Oakes, English-born President of Harvard University (born 1631)
- August 22 – Philippe Delano, Dutch Plymouth Colony settler (born 1602)
- December 22 – Richard Alleine, English Puritan clergyman (born 1611)
- date unknown – Gerard ter Borch, Dutch painter (born 1617)