King George III (born George William Frederick, 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 to 1 January 1801, when he became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was also Elector of Hanover, which made him a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.
|King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; King of Hanover; prev. King of Great Britain and Ireland; Elector of Hanover|
|Reign||25 October 1760 - 29 January 1820|
|Coronation||22 September 1761|
|Born||4 June 1738|
Norfolk House, London, England
|Died||29 January 1820|
Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
|Spouse||Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz|
Frederick, Duke of York
Charlotte, Princess Royal
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
|House||House of Hanover|
|Father||Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|Mother||Augusta of Saxe-Gotha|
During George's reign, he lost control of the United States of America. His two kingdoms, Great Britain and Ireland, were merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Also during his reign, the British were at war with republican and Napoleon I's France. The Electorate of Hanover eventually became a Kingdom.
George suffered from periodic bouts of mental illness. One of them caused a crisis in 1788, and attempts were made to nominate his son George IV as regent. The king quickly recovered and prevented that from happening.
George signed the Quebec Act of 1774, which abolished William III's anti-Catholic laws in the American colonies. Also during his reign, George III signed legislation abolishing some of the anti-Catholic Laws in Great Britain and Ireland. For example, the Catholic Relief Acts of 1772 and 1774 allowed Roman Catholics to have land leases in Great Britain. In 1793, Hogart's Act allowed Roman Catholics to vote in Irish elections, but George blocked a proposal in 1800 to allow Catholics to sit in the British Parliament.
In the later part of his life, George suffered from recurrent mental illness, which was eventually permanent. Although it has since been suggested that he suffered from a genetic blood disease, porphyria, the cause of his illness is not certain. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, and George's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV.
Because of "his plain, homely, thrifty manners and tastes", George III has had the nickname of Farmer George.
Titles and stylesEdit
- 4 June 1738 – 31 March 1751: His Royal Highness Prince George
- 31 March 1751 – 20 April 1751: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh
- 20 April 1751 – 25 October 1760: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
- 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820: His Majesty The King
|George III of the United Kingdom||Father:
Frederick, Prince of Wales
George II of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Princess Eleanor Erdmuthe Louise of Saxe-Eisenach
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Prince Charles of Anhalt-Zerbst
Sophie of Saxe-Weissenfels
- ↑ Ireland and the British Empire ed. Kenny, Kevin Oxford University Press 2004 page 79
- ↑ Willis, Robert The Democracy of God: An American Catholicism 2006 iUniverse Inc. page 18
- ↑ "The Quebec Act, 1774". www.solon.org.
- ↑ Ditchfield, G.M. George III: An Essay in Monarchy Pallgrave McMillan 2002 pages 101-102
- ↑ The London Gazette consistently refers to the young prince as "His Royal Highness Prince George" "No. 8734". The London Gazette. 5 April 1748. p. 3. "No. 8735". The London Gazette. 9 April 1748. p. 2. "No. 8860". The London Gazette. 20 June 1749. p. 2. "No. 8898". The London Gazette. 31 October 1749. p. 3. "No. 8902". The London Gazette. 17 November 1749. p. 3. "No. 8963". The London Gazette. 16 June 1750. p. 1. "No. 8971". The London Gazette. 14 July 1750. p. 1.
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