Help:IPA/Oghuz languages

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tr}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

For a more in-depth coverage of the sounds of Turkish, see Turkish phonology.

IPA Example English
b About this soundbebek about
β vücut[1] like vase, but with both lips
c About this soundşekil[2] skew
d About this soundmadde ado
About this soundocak jump
f far food
ɡ gam[2] ago
ɟ About this soundgerçek[2] argue
h About this soundanahtar home
j About this soundhayat, düğün[3] yes
k About this soundkabak[2] score
l About this soundbilinç late
ɫ About this soundkulak[2] tail
m About this soundcuma much
n About this soundnesne not
ɲ engin[4] canyon
ŋ yangın[5] wing
p About this soundpazar span
ɾ About this soundanahtarlar AmE pretty or Scottish r
s About this soundsinek send
ʃ About this soundkişi shoe
t About this soundTürkçe stable
About this soundçivi change
v About this soundçivi[1] vase
z About this soundpazar zone
ʒ jilet leisure
IPA Example English
a About this soundkabak father
æ About this sounderkek[6] cat
e About this sounderkek bed
i About this soundçivi creek
o About this soundtokmak story
œ About this soundözgürlük somewhat like bird
u About this soundruh soup
ɯ About this soundkış somewhat like roses
y About this soundTürkçe somewhat like cue
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı [toɾbaˈɫɯ] 'with bag'
Torbalı [ˈtoɾbaɫɯ] (a place name)[7]
ː â, î, û[8], ğ[3] lan About this sound[oːˈɫan] 'boy'


  1. 1.0 1.1 /v/ surfaces as [β] when either preceded or followed by a rounded vowel (but not when intervocalic).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 [c~k], [ɟ~ɡ], and [l~ɫ] contrast only in loanwords before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩. In native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before front vowels ([æ, e, i, œ, y]) and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before back vowels ([a, o, u, ɯ]); word-finally or preconsonantally, [c, ɟ, l] occur after front vowels and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur after back vowels.
  3. 3.0 3.1 In Turkish, the letter ⟨ğ⟩ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
  4. [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
  5. [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
  6. Allophone of /e/ before liquids [l, m, n, ɾ] in coda/syllable-final position, and in the suffix -mez
  7. In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  8. Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨^⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents [c], the letter ⟨g⟩ represents [ɟ] or the letter ⟨l⟩ represents [l] before back vowels [a] and [u].
    Yet the düzeltme işareti is used primarily to indicate palatalization, instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when it is pronounced as [kaˈtil], but it means "killer" when it is pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long because the sound /k/ does not become /c/ in this case.
    ⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it indicates only the vowel length.