Luis Echeverría Álvarez (Spanish pronunciation: [lwis etʃeβeˈri.a ˈalβaɾes]; 17 January 1922 – 8 July 2022) was an Mexican politician, lawyer and writer. He was President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. He wrote several books about his years in office and about his retirement. During his presidency, his administration was criticized because of their handling of the Mexican Dirty War. He was a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. From 1978 to 1979, he was the Mexican Ambassador to Australia and New Zealand.
|57th President of Mexico|
1 December 1970 – 1 December 1976
|Preceded by||Gustavo Díaz Ordaz|
|Succeeded by||José López Portillo|
|Secretary of the Interior of Mexico|
16 November 1963 – 11 November 1969
|President||Adolfo López Mateos|
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
|Preceded by||Gustavo Díaz Ordaz|
|Succeeded by||Mario Moya Palencia|
Luis Echeverría Álvarez
17 January 1922
Mexico City, Mexico
|Died||8 July 2022 (aged 100)|
|Political party||Institutional Revolutionary|
María Esther Zuno
(m. 1945; died 1999)
|Alma mater||National Autonomous University of Mexico (LLB)|
When he was president, Echeverría banned almost every form of rock music in Mexico because of the rise of youth protestors in the 1970s. In 1971, he created the country's first environmental law.
He was a critic of dictators such as Augusto Pinochet and gave refugees asylum in Mexico. He also had a close partnership with Chairman Mao Zedong. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Echeverría did not have good relations with Israel after supporting a UN resolution that made Zionism the same as racism.
When he was president, Echeverría brought economic growth to the Mexican economy, as it grew by 6.1% and fixed the country's infrastructure. However, many saw that his presidency was authoritarian. Many blamed him for the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre against student protesters, the Dirty War against leftist critics in the country, and the economic crisis that happened in Mexico towards the end of his term.
Echeverría was born in Mexico City, Mexico and studied at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. He turned 100 in January 2022. He was married to María Esther Zuno from 1945 until her death in 1999. They had eight children.
In 2006, he was indicted and ordered under house arrest for his role in the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre and the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre, but in 2009 the charges against him were dropped.
Echeverría died at his home in Cuernavaca, Mexico from problems caused by pneumonia on 8 July 2022 at the age of 100.
- Bizzarro, Salvatore. "Mexico under Echeverría." Current History (pre-1986) 66.000393 (1974): 212.
- Castañeda, Jorge G. Perpetuating Power: How Mexican Presidents Were Chosen. New York: The New Press 2000. ISBN 1-56584-616-8
- Grindle, Merilee S. "Policy change in an authoritarian regime: Mexico under Echeverria." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 19.4 (1977): 523–555.
- Kiddle, Amelia Marie, ed. Populism in Twentieth Century Mexico: The Presidencies of Lázaro Cáárdenas and Luis Echeverría. University of Arizona Press, 2010.
- Looney, Robert E. "Mexican Economic Performance during the Echeverría Administration: Bad Luck or Poor Planning?." Bulletin of Latin American Research (1983): 57-68.
- Krauze, Enrique, Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: HarperCollins 1997. ISBN 0-06-016325-9
- Olcott, Jocelyn. "The politics of opportunity: Mexican populism under Lázaro Cárdenas and Luis Echeverría." Gender and Populism in Latin America: Passionate Politics (2010): 25-46.
- ↑ Yoram Shapira. 1977. Mexico: The Impact of the 1968 Student Protest on Echeverria's Reformism. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs , Vol. 19, No. 4 (Nov., 1977), pp. 557-580 
- ↑ Merilee S. Grindle. 1977. Policy Change in an Authoritarian Regime: Mexico under Echeverria Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs , Vol. 19, No. 4 (Nov., 1977), pp. 523-555
- ↑ Poniatowska, Elena (18 November 2007). "El poeta Alberto Blanco". La Jornada. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- ↑ Doggett, Peter (4 October 2007). There's A Riot Going On: Revolutionaries, Rock Stars, and the Rise and Fall of '60s Counter-Culture (1st ed.). UK: Canongate Books Ltd. p. 431. ISBN 978-1847671141.
- ↑ Pilcher, Jeffrey M. (2002). The human tradition in Mexico. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-8420-2976-6.
- ↑ Lopez Segura, Eduardo (12 September 2013). "Avandaro y el festival de rock de 1971". Televisa. Noticieros Televisa. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- ↑ Stephen P. Mumme, C. Richard Bath, and Valerie J. Assetto. "Political Development and Environmental Policy in Mexico." Latin American Research Review, vol. 23, no. 1 (1988), pp. 7-14
- ↑ González, Fredy (2017). Paisanos Chinos: Transpacific Politics among Chinese Immigrants in Mexico. University of California Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-520-96448-8.
- ↑ "Mexico Votes for General Assembly Resolution Condemning Zionism". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 17 December 1975. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- ↑ Riding, Alan (13 December 1975). "Mexico Tells U.S. Jews It Does Not Link Zionism With Racism". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- ↑ El sexenio de Luis Echeverría Clío, 1999
- ↑ Tobar, Hector (27 February 2006). "New Details of Mexico's 'Dirty War'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
- ↑ Grindle, Merilee (1977). Policy Change in an Authoritarian Regime: Mexico under Echeverria. Cambridge University Press. pp. 523–555.
- ↑ "Rights group urges Mexico to resolve "dirty war"". Reuters. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- ↑ Evans, Michael. "The Dawn of Mexico's Dirty War". Gwu.edu. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- ↑ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2003). Historia de México Vol. II. Pearson Educación. pp. 387–388.
- ↑ "De joven entusiasta del PRI al "Halconazo": Luis Echeverría Álvarez y sus 100 años de vida". infobae.com (in Spanish). 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
- ↑ "Warrant for Mexico ex-president". BBC News. 30 June 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- ↑ "Exculpa tribunal a Luis Echeverría". La Jornada (in Spanish). 27 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- ↑ Kandell, Jonathan (9 July 2022). "Luis Echeverría Alvarez, Former President of Mexico, Dies at 100". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2022.