Zionism is the nationalist movement to create a sovereign (self-ruling) homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Palestine. This movement resulted in the creation of the State of Israel in 1948.
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The word 'Zionism' comes from Zion, which means Jerusalem. Theodor Herzl started the Zionist movement. At the time, Palestine was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The British during the First World War made a statement called the Balfour Declaration agreeing to support a Jewish homeland in Palestine.