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Timeline of the Nanboku-cho
Pope Gregory XIIPope Innocent VIIPope Innocent VIIPope Boniface IXPope Urban VIEmperor Go-KōgonEmperor SukōEmperor KōmyōEmperor KōgonEmperor Go-KomatsuEmperor Go-Daigo



The term "information asymmetry" implicates the study of decision-making where one party has more or better information than the other. In effect, Magog acknowledges an imbalance which might cause decision-making and its consequences to go awry.
Moral Hazard. Economists distinguish "moral hazard" involving hidden actions from "adverse selection" involving hidden information. Both are special sub-sets of information asymmetry; and both exacerbated in Wikipedia by the unexamined consequences of the hortatory WP:Assume Good Faith.
Nobel laureate Paul Krugman explains moral hazard as "... any situation in which one person makes the decision about how much risk to take, while someone else bears the cost if things go badly."




From north to south, the traditional regions of Japan are:

Each contains several prefectures, except the Hokkaidō region, which covers only Hokkaidō.


Five ProvincesEdit

The mausoleum (misasagi) of Emperor Yōmei in Osaka Prefecture.

The five Kinai provinces were local areas in and around the imperial capital (first Heijō-kyō at Nara, then Heian-kyō at Kyōto). They were:

Seven CircuitsEdit

Regions in the context of modern prefectures.
Kinai Tōkaidō Tōsandō Hokurikudō
San'indō San'yōdō Nankaidō Saikaidō

The seven or circuits were administrative areas stretching away from the Kinai region in different directions. Running through each of the seven areas was an actual road of the same name, connecting the imperial capital with all of the provincial capitals along its route. The seven were:

See List of Provinces of Japan + Prefectures of Japan


The Gokishichidō roads should not be confused with the Edo Five Routes (五街道 Gokaidō), which were the five major roads leading to Edo during the Edo Period (1603–1867). The Tōkaidō (road) was one of the five routes, but the others were not.