Bhagat Singh (Punjabi pronunciation: [pə̀ɡət̪ sɪ́ŋɡ] (listen) 1907[a] – 23 March 1931) was an Indian socialist and a revolutionary. He is considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian Independence Movement.
Singh in April 1929
|Born||28 September 1907[a]|
|Died||23 March 1931 (aged 23)|
|Cause of death||Execution by hanging|
|Organization||Naujawan Bharat Sabha|
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
Kirti Kisan Party
|Movement||Indian Independence movement|
He was born to Vidyavati kaur and Sardar Kisan Singh Sandhu, in a Sikh jat family on 28 September 1907 in Lyallpur, Punjab in British India. His family had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj. When Bhagat Singh was a teenager, he studied European revolutionary movements.
He read Marxists Books also to know about that side too. It was said that this attracted him but that is still not proven. In March 1926, he initiated Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
The British Government arrested him for agitating the Indians against the British by making a fake FIR for the Dussehra Bomb Case of 16 October 1926 -
DUSSEHRA BOMB CASE
On the annual Dusshera fair that was held on 16th of October (9 days ago), Bhagat Singh threw a granade right down near the wooden platform below the Ravan statue and the statue collapsed. The statue caught fire and one man overwhelmed got unconscious and rest others escaped unhurt. The charges are for attempt to kill a crowd and attempt to kill a person. The fine for this act stands 60,000. Rupees.
He became involved in numerous revolutionary activities. He quickly gained prominence in the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and became one of its chief leaders. Eventually, the name of the organization was changed to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRAS). This happened in the year 1928.
Lala Lajpat Rai was killed at the hands of the police. Bhagat Singh wanted revenge for this incidence. He avenged the death of Lala Lajpat Rai and killed the Assistant Superintendent of Police John Poyntz Saunders. The police tried to capture him. However, Bhagat Singh was successful in avoiding arrest.
He made a plan to bomb the Central Legislative Assembly. He partnered with Batukeshwar Dutt for this task. He bombarded the assembly with two bombs making sure that this will not harm any person. They were shouting slogans of revolution and threw pamphlets.
After the bombarding, they surrendered. He was held on this charge in prison. He underwent a 112-day fast in jail and so he did not have food for that long.
He went on hunger strike in Jail to protest the inhuman treatment of fellow prisoners by jail authority. In response to this determined protest, he gained nationwide support.
His mentor as a young boy was Kartar Singh Sarabha, whose photo he always carried in his pocket. Singh is himself considered a martyr by Indians for acting to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai. While in prison, Singh and two others had written a letter to Lord Irwin, wherein they asked to be treated as prisoners of war and consequently to be executed by firing squad and not by hanging. Prannath Mehta, Singh's friend, visited him in the jail on 20 March, four days before his execution, with a draft letter for mercy, but he declined to sign it. He was executed on 23 March 1931 at the age of 23.
- Chopra, R. M., an article on Bhagat Singh in "The Legacy of the Punjab", 1997, Punjabi Bradree, Kolkata
- The date of Singh's birth is subject to dispute. Commonly thought to be born on either 27 or 28 September 1907, some biographers believe that the evidence points to 19 October 1907.