country in South Asia
(Redirected from Government of India)

India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), also known as Hindustān or Bhārat within the country, is a country in South Asia. It is the largest country by number of people and seventh largest country by land area.[8] India is a peninsula, and has the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It has six neighbors: Pakistan in the north-west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan in the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. Sri Lanka is nearby to the south.

Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"[2][3]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[4][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram"
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Land controlled by India shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green
CapitalNew Delhi ("de facto")
28°36′50″N 77°12′30″E / 28.61389°N 77.20833°E / 28.61389; 77.20833
Largest cityMumbai
Official languagesHindi | English ("de facto")
Recognised regional languages25 languages
National languageNone
Ethnic groups
98% Indians

2% others

( Chakmas | Tibetans | Afghans | Filipino and others)
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Droupadi Murmu
Jagdeep Dhankhar
Narendra Modi
Om Birla
Dhananjaya Chandrachud
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
• Total
3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) (7th)
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
1,437,768,424 (1st)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977 (2nd)
• Density
437.37/km2 (1,132.8/sq mi) (30th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
$14.216 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$9,983 (125th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
$4.105 trillion (5th)
• Per capita
$2,845 (140th)
Gini (2020)55.9[5]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.763[6]
high · 99th
CurrencyIndian rupee (₹) (INR)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date format
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft[7]
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN
Internet (others)

The capital city of India is New Delhi. India has the second largest military force in the world and is also a nuclear weapon state.[9] India's economy became the world's fastest growing in the G20 developing nations during 2014, replacing the People's Republic of China.[10] India's literacy and wealth are also rising.[11] According to New World Wealth, India is the fifth richest country in the world with a total individual wealth of $12.6 trillion.[12][13] However, it still has many social and economic issues like poverty, pollution, social equality, religious extremism, terrorism and corruption.[14] India is a founding member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and has signed the Kyoto Protocol.

India has the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP, the third largest by GDP (PPP) and is one of the fastest growing major economy. India has its own space agency (ISRO) and has done various research throughout the solar system, including sending spacecraft to the Moon, Mars, and Venus.[source?] India is also a member of the G20 developing nations, and has been described as a potential superpower due to its rising economy and increase in global influence.

India has the fourth largest number of spoken languages per country in the world, only behind Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Nigeria.[15] Most of Indians follow Hinduism at 80%, but people of different religions such as Buddhism, Sikhism and Islam also live there.[16]

National symbols

National emblem of India

The national emblem of India shows four lions standing back-to-back. The lions symbolize power, pride, confidence, and courage. Only the government can use this emblem, according to the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.

The name India comes from the Greek word, 'Indus'. This came from the word sindhu, which, over time, turned into Hind, Hindi, or Hindu. The preferred endonym (the name given to the country by its own people) is "Bhārat" in Hindi and other Indian languages as contrasted with names from outsiders. Some of the national symbols are:


The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is thought to be of "outstanding universal value".[17]

One of the oldest language of the world, Tamil, was born in today's India. Which is more than 3000 years old.[18] Later, a king named Chandragupt Maurya built an empire called the Maurya Empire in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country.[19] From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC  AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas.[20] Southern India at that time was famous for its science, art, and writing. The Cholas of Thanjavur were pioneers at war in the seas and influenced Malaya, Borneo, Cambodia. The influence of Cholas are still noticeable in Southeast Asia.[21]

Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.[22]

In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest against British control. One of the people who led the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence".[23] On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. Every year, on this day, Indians celebrate Republic Day. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.

After 1947, India had a socialist planned economy. It is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including the wars in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and a city that was not a part of India until 1961. The Portuguese refused to give it to the country, and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998. It is one of the few countries that have nuclear bombs.[24] Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.[25]


Parliament of India

India has the most people of any democracy in the world.[26] India's government is divided into three parts: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).

The legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two houses: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members,[27] and the Lok Sabha has 552 members.[27]

The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for a period of five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, helps the Prime Minister. Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India on 16 May 2014. He is the 19th Prime Minister of India. The president has less power than the prime minister.

The judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India.[28] In India, there are also 24 High Courts.

Geography and climate

Rivers of India

India is the seventh biggest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India, is near Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar.[29]

India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long.[30] The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.

India has different climates.[31] In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter.[31] The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions.[31] The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land dries out because there is less rain) are possible. Monsoons normally come around July–August.



The Indian Armed Forces is the military of India. It is made up of an Army, Navy and Air Force. There are other parts like Paramilitary and Strategic Nuclear Command.

The President of India is the Commander-in-Chief. However, it is managed by the Ministry of Defence. In 2010, the Indian Armed Forces had 1.32 million active personnel. This makes it one of the largest militaries in the world.[32]

The Indian Army is becoming more modern by buying and making new weapons. It is also building defenses against missiles of other countries.[33] In the years 2018-2022, India imported more arms than any other nation in the world.[34] Since its independence in 1947, India fought four wars with Pakistan and a war with China.

Indian states


For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators (called Lieutenant Governors) sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Delhi, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-eight states and eight union territories.[35]

These are the states and territories of India, including 29 states and 7 union territories.


State Capital Code
Andhra Pradesh Amaravati AP
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar AR
Assam Dispur AS
Bihar Patna BR
Chhattisgarh Raipur CG
Goa Panaji GA
Gujarat Gandhi nagar GJ
Haryana Chandigarh HR
Himachal Pradesh Shimla HP
Jharkhand Ranchi JH
Karnataka Bangalore KA
Kerala Tiruvanananthapuram KL
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal MP
Maharashtra Mumbai MH
Manipur Imphal MN
Meghalaya Shillong ML
Mizoram Aizawl MZ
Nagaland Kohima NL
Odisha Bhubaneswar OD
Punjab Chandigarh PB
Rajasthan Jaipur RJ
Sikkim Gangtok SK
Tamil Nadu Chennai TN
Telangana Hyderabad TG
Tripura Agartala TR
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow UP
Uttarakhand Dehra Dun UK
West Bengal Kolkata WB

Union territories:

Union territory Capital
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair
Chandigarh Chandigarh
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman
Delhi Delhi
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (summer capital) and Jammu (winter capital)
Ladakh Leh
Lakshadweep Kavaratti
Puducherry Puducherry

Border Disputes


There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are.[36] Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir.[37] The Indian government claims it as an Indian state.[37] Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.[37]

In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord.[38] In July 1914, China withdrew from the agreement.[38] Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.[39][40]



The economy of the country is among the world's fastest growing. It is the 7th largest in the world with a nominal GDP of $2,250 billion (USD), and in terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth US$8.720 trillion).[41] The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on:

  • Service sector: 43%
  • Industries: 41%
  • Information technology: 7%
  • Farming: 7%
  • Outsourcing: 2%.

India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.[42]

However, despite economic growth, India continues to suffer from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005.[43] In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than US$2 a day,[44] which was lowered to 68% by 2009.[45]


This is a map of the population density of India.

There are 1.4 billion people living in India.[46] In 2023, India passed China to become the world's most populous country.[47] About 65% of Indians live in rural areas, or land set aside for farming.[48] The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad.[35] Hindi and English are Official languages of India. India has 23 officially recognised languages.[49] Altogether, 1,625 languages are spoken in India.[28]



There are many different languages and cultures in India.[35] There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, and about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.

Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers.[50] It is the official language of the union.[51] Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'.[52] The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognized to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.[28]

In the south of India, many people speak Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. In the north, many people speak Chhattisgarhi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, and Marathi, Odia, and Bihari.[53][54]

India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages.[55] Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi);[56] Tamil, Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, and Odia are officially the "classical languages of India."

Language Long form English pronunciation Short form
Assamese ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য Bhārôt Gôṇôrājÿô ভাৰত Bharot
Bengali ভারত গণরাজ্য Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô ভারত Bharot
Bhojpuri भोजपुरी Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô ভারত Bharot
English[57] Republic of India India
Gujarati ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક Bhartiya Prajasattak ભારત.
Hindi भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya भारत Bhārat
Kannada ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ Bhārata Gaṇarājya ಭಾರತ Bhārata
Kashmiri ہِندوستان Hindustān
Konkani भारोत गोणराज भारोत
Lepcha ᰛᰩᰵᰛᰧᰵᰶ་ Hindustān
Limbu ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤴ་ Hindustān
Magahi ᤕमगही/मगधी Hindustān
Malayalam ഭാരതം Bhāratam ഭാരതം Bhāratam
Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei) ভারত গণরাজ্য ভারত
Marathi भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक Bhartiya Prajasattak भारत Bhārat
Nepali भारत गणराज्य Bʰārat Gaṇarādzya भारत Bʰārat
Odia ଭାରତ Bharata Bharata
Punjabi ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ Bhārat Gantantar ਭਾਰਤ Bhārat
Sanskrit भारत गणराज्यम् Bhārata Gaṇarājyam भारत Bhārata
Santhali ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱯᱱᱟᱹᱛ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ
Sindhi ڀارت، هندستانڀارت، ڀارت،
Tamil இந்தியக் குடியரசு Indiyak-Kudiyarasu இந்தியா India/Bharadham
Telugu భారత గణరాజ్యము Bʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamu భారత్ Bhārath
Urdu جمہوریہ بھارت Jumhūrīyat-e Bhārat بھارت Bhārat


Religion in India[58]
Religion Percent

Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE,[59] although these were orally transmitted for centuries before this period.[60] Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible ritualised music.[61]

The Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple of the Sikhs

Several modern religions are linked to India,[62] namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.

The religion of Hinduism is the main faith followed by 79.80% of people in the Republic of India; Islam – 14.23%; Christianity – 2.30%; Sikhism – 1.72%; Buddhism – 0.70% and Jainism – 0.37%.[63]



India sent a spacecraft to Mars for the first time in 2014. That made it the fourth country and first Asian country to do so, successfully. It was called the Mars Orbiter Mission.[64]

ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission to create a world record. India became the first nation in the world to have launched over a hundred satellites in one mission. That was more than the 2014 Russian record of 37 satellites in a single launch.

Pop culture


India has the largest movie industry in the world. The Hindi film industry is known as Bollywood, and is mainly based in Bombay, now known as Mumbai. Other industries include Tollywood, Kollywood, Sandalwood, Mollywood, Jollywood, Dhollywood, etc. It makes 1,000 movies a year, about twice as many as Hollywood.[65]


A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

Indians have excelled in hockey. They have also won eight gold, one silver, and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka and won the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.

Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala.[66] The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters.[67] Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.

  1. "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. See Date and time notation in India.


  1. 1.0 1.1 National Informatics Centre 2005.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "National Symbols | National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017. The National Anthem of India Jana Gana Mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.
  3. "National anthem of India: a brief on 'Jana Gana Mana'". News18. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  4. Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
  5. "India: wealth Gini coefficient 2020". Statista. Archived from the original on 13 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  6. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  7. "List of all left- & right-driving countries around the world". 13 May 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  8. Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (24 April 2023). "India overtakes China to become world's most populous country". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 April 2023.
  9. "India Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  10. "India clocks 7.5% growth in January-March quarter, becomes world's fastest growing economy". DNA India. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  11. Singh, Gyanant (16 January 2013). "Rising economic wealth and literacy behind increase of court cases, claims report". India Today. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  12. "India on 10 wealthiest country list, takes 5th spot". The Times of India. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  13. "India's large population helps push it to 5th position in wealthiest nations list". The Economic Times. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  14. "Hindu extremists are 'hunting down' Muslims, with impunity". Le 25 August 2023. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  15. "Which countries have the most languages?". Ethnologue. 8 February 2023.
  16. Kramer, Stephanie. "Key findings about the religious composition of India". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  17. "Taj Mahal". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 28 September 2007. The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value.
  18. "Dravidian language family is 4,500 years old: study". The Hindu. PTI. 21 March 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 April 2019.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. Jona Lendering. "Maurya dynasty". Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
  20. "South India". Suni System Ltd. 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
  21. "What were the main achievements of Raja Raja Chola and Rajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty in south India | eNotes". eNotes. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  22. "From Trade to Colonization - Historic Dynamics of the East India Companies". 3 June 2007. paragraph 18. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
  23. Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
  24. "India Profile". NTI. 2003. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  25. Montek S. Ahluwalia (2002). "Economic Reforms in India since 1991: Has Gradualism Worked?". Journal of Economic Perspectives. Archived from the original (MS Word) on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
  26. "Country profile: India". BBC. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Our Parliament A brief description of the Indian Parliament". Retrieved 16 June 2007.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
  29. "Andaman and Nicobar Islands · India". Andaman and Nicobar Islands · India. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  30. Kumar, V. Sanil; Pathak, K. C.; Pednekar, P.; Raju, N. S. N. (2006). "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF). Current Science. 91 (4): 530–536.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. 1997. p. 333. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4.
  32. IISS 2010, pp. 358
  33. India's army seeks military space program San Francisco Chronicle.
  34. Philip, Snehesh Alex (27 March 2023). "India 'largest arms importer' in 2018-2022, but defence exports hit 'all-time high' of Rs 13,399 cr in 2022-23". ThePrint. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 "Country Profile: India" (PDF). Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. December 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  36. "Fantasy frontiers". The Economist Newspaper Limited. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 "India - Pakistan Border Dispute". Maps of India. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  38. 38.0 38.1 "Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet (Simla Accord)". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 8 October 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  39. "China revives claims on Indian territory". Islamic Republic News Agency. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
  40. "IPCS - Institute Of Peace & Conflict Studies".
  41. "List of Countries by Projected GDP". Statistics Times. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  42. Cite error: The named reference CIA was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  43. "Poverty estimates for 2004-05" (PDF). Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  44. "Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Population living below $2 a day (%)". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  45. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. FIELD LISTING: POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  46. "World Population Dashboard". United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  47. Nocera, Kate (11 July 2022). "India will surpass China in population next year, UN projects". Axios.
  48. "Census of India 2001". Census of India. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
  49. "Languages of India". India image. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2005.
  50. "Languages by number of speakers according to 1991 census". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Archived from the original on 29 April 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  51. Mallikarjun, B. (Nov. 2004), Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi–The Official Language of India, Language in India, Volume 4, Number 11. ISSN 1930-2940.
  52. "Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27 April, 1960". Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  53. Prabodh Bechardas Pandit, "Language in a Plural Society", Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Committee, 1977.
  54. Robert McHenry, "The New Encyclopaedia Britannica", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993.
  55. "Eighth Schedule". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  56. "The Union: Official Language". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  57. "CIA Factbook: India". CIA. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
  58. "Census tables".
  59. Goldman 2007, p. 23.
  60. Rinehart 2004, p. 28.
  61. "Ancient Indians made 'rock music'". BBC News. 19 March 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2007.
  62. Adams, C. J., Classification of religions: Geographical, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2007
  63. "Census of India 2001, Data on Religion". Census of India. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
  64. Chang, John M. (5 November 2013). "India Launches Mars Orbiter Mission, Heralds New Space Race". ABC News.
  65. "Bollywood at 100: How Big is India's Mammoth Film Industry". International Business Times. 3 May 2013.
  66. Majumdar & Bandyopadhyay 2006, pp. 1–5
  67. "Anand crowned World champion". Rediff. 29 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.

Other websites