Lebanese Shia Islamist political party and militant group

Hezbollah (Arabic: ‮حزب الله‬‎, meaning Party of God) is an Islamic political party and paramilitary organization in Lebanon.[5][6][7] It was formed in Lebanon in 1982, during the Lebanese Civil War. The leader of Hezbollah is currently Hassan Nasrallah.

LeaderHassan Nasrallah
Founded1982 (officially)
IdeologyShia Islamism
ReligionShia Islam
International affiliationAxis of Resistance
ColoursYellow, Green
Parliament of Lebanon
13 / 128
See List of official sites.

Hezbollah's main goals during the Civil War were to fight against Western influences and create an Islamic state in Lebanon. Its members are mostly Shia Muslims. The group also supports Arab nationalism. It wants freedom for the Palestinian people in Palestine. Because of this, it believes that the State of Israel should not exist, and fights against it. Over the years, the Hezbollah militia has fought a guerrilla war against the Israeli Army along the border in southern Lebanon. It often attacks Israel's military positions, hospitals, grade schools, school buses, and other civilians by firing rockets across Israel's northern border.

Hezbollah is supported by Syria, Iran, Russia, Lebanon and Hamas.

History change

Foundation change

Hezbollah was officially founded in 1985. It was originally founded following the 1982 Lebanon War when Lebanese clerics who had received education in Najaf came together to form Hezbollah as a movement of resistance against Israel invasion of Lebanon in 1982. They were influenced by Ayatollah Khomeini's model established after the Iranian Revolution in 1979.[8] The party's founders adopted "Hezbollah" as the name chosen by Khomeini which means 'Party of God'. This foundation is also part of the movement of exportation of the Iranian Revolution.[9]

Opposition change

To destroy Hezbollah bases, Israel has responded in different ways; for example, air strikes on sites in Lebanon and sending ground troops into Southern Lebanon. In 2000, Israel withdrew its troops from the "security zone" in Southern Lebanon, but not from a sliver of land called Shebba Farms. This fertile area was kept under Israeli occupation. The border stayed relatively quiet until July 2006, except for targeted assassinations and kidnappings by Israel. In July, Hezbollah captured two Israeli soldiers. This led to the 2006 Lebanon War, in which Hezbollah rockets reached deep into Israel.

A few governments consider Hezbollah a terrorist group. While the majority including Russia and China do not. Among those who consider it to be a terrorist group are the United States,[10] Bahrain, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands and Israel.[11] The European Union and the United Kingdom consider Hezbollah's military branch to be a terrorist group, but not the political party.[12][13] Lebanon considers Hezbollah to be a legitimate resistance movement. This view is shared by Syria, Iran and all other countries in the Arab world.[5]Russia considers Hezbollah as a legitimate sociopolitical organization[14] while China remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah. Other countries that do not consider Hezbollah a terror organization includes Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and others.

References change

  1. Elie Alagha, Joseph (2011). Hizbullah's Documents: From the 1985 Open Letter to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 15, 20. ISBN 978-90-8555-037-2.
  2. Shehata, Samer (2012). Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-415-78361-3.
  3. Husseinia, Rola El (2010). "Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria". Third World Quarterly. 31 (5): 803–815. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502695. S2CID 219628295.
  4. Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Jamail, Dahr (July 20, 2006). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  6. "A Tweet too far: US editor latest victim of Internet Inquisition". RT. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  7. "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. September 13, 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  8. Daher, Joseph (2016). Hezbollah: The Political Economy of Lebanon's Party of God. Pluto Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1gk07vx. ISBN 978-0-7453-3693-0. JSTOR j.ctt1gk07vx.
  9. "About Hezbollah | Hezbollah". hezbollah.org. Retrieved 2023-09-09.
  10. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. October 11, 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved July 16, 2006. "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)".
  11. "Summary of Terrorist Activity 2004". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 5, 2005. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  12. "EU places Hezbollah military wing on terror blacklist". The Jerusalem Post. July 22, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  13. "Proscribed terrorist organisations" (PDF). Home Office. November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  14. staff, T. O. I.; Agencies. "Russia says Hezbollah, Hamas not terror groups". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2019-03-02.

Other websites change