Italian campaign (World War II)

1943–1945 military campaign of World War II

The Italian campaign of World War II, also called the Liberation of Italy, was a military campaign in the Kingdom of Italy from 1943-1945. After victory in the North African Campaign the British and American governments agreed to invade Italy before invading France. In September 1943, Italy surrendered to the allies but the German forces in the country occupied the north of the country and set up a fascist government.

Italian Campaign
Part of World War II

Map of the Spring 1945 offensive in Italy
Date9 July 1943 – 2 May 1945
Result Allied victory

 United Kingdom

 United States
 Free French
 Canada (until 1945)
 South Africa
(and others)
 Italy (from September 1943)  Yugoslavia


Italy (until September 1943)
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
  • United Kingdom 8th Army
  • United States 5th Army
  • Nazi Germany 14th Army
  • Nazi Germany 10th Army



In July 1943, allied forces landed in Sicily, With the declining popularity with Benito Mussolini, he was forced to leave as prime minister. Allied forces landed in mainland Italy in September, and the government surrendered. The German forces occupied Italy and the Italian Social Republic was formed, starting a civil war.

In January 1944, the battle of Monte Cassino started and it lasted a few months. The allies won, they liberated Rome and pushed up the Italian mainland.

In April 1945, allied forces made the last offensive into Italy, Mussolini was executed by an Italian partisan on the 28th of April. On 2nd of May, the axis forces surrendered and the civil war ended.