sovereign state in Southern Africa
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Botswana (officially called the Republic of Botswana) is a country in southern Africa. The capital of Botswana is Gaborone.

Republic of Botswana
Lefatshe la Botswana  (Tswana)
Coat of arms of Botswana
Coat of arms
Motto: "Pula!" (Tswana)
Anthem: Fatshe leno la rona  (Tswana)
Blessed Be Our Noble Land
Location of  Botswana  (dark green)
Location of  Botswana  (dark green)
and largest city
24°39.5′S 25°54.5′E / 24.6583°S 25.9083°E / -24.6583; 25.9083
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised national languagesSetswana
Ethnic groups
(2012 est.)
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party[1][2][3] parliamentary constitutional republic[4]
• President
Mokgweetsi Masisi[5]
Slumber Tsogwane
Phandu Skelemani
Terence Rannowane
LegislatureNational Assembly
• Established (Constitution)
30 September 1966
• Total
581,730 km2 (224,610 sq mi)[6] (47th)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
2,588,423[7][8] (145th)
• 2011 census
• Density
3.7/km2 (9.6/sq mi) (231st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$44.3 billion[9]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$19.651 billion[9]
• Per capita
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 53.3[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.735[11]
high · 100th
CurrencyBotswana pula (BWP)
Time zoneCentral Africa Time (GMT+2)[12]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+267
ISO 3166 codeBW



The first people in Botswana's territory were the Khoe and San people.[13] Botswana was first formed as the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the British Empire in 1885.[14][15]



The countries that border Botswana are Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Namibia. It is also possible to travel from Botswana directly into Zambia by crossing the Zambezi River by ferry.

Botswana is landlocked. All of Botswana's trade must be brought in over land or by airplane.

The two most important geographical features in Botswana are the Okavango Delta and the Kalahari Desert.



Botswana is divided into 10 districts:



People from Botswana are called Batswana. The population of Botswana is about 2.2 million. [16] This is only 2.7 persons per km², a small number for a country of this size. This is because most of the country is desert and very dry.

Botswana has two official languages: Setswana and English. Setswana is the national language (also called Tswana).



Botswana is a democracy. The people vote for their political leaders. Those leaders vote for the president. In 2008 Ian Khama became the fourth president of Botswana.

President Khama won elections in 2009 and 2014. The current President of Botswana is Dr. Eric K. Mokgweetsi who took over from Dr. Ian Khama Seretse Khama in 2018.



The economy of Botswana has been growing very fast since it became an independent country in 1966. The people of Botswana have had the world's fastest growth in standard of living since that time.

Botswana's economy comes mostly from mining. This includes diamonds, metals (including copper) and minerals (including salt). Botswana is the highest producer of diamonds by value in the world.[17] In 1999, Botswana produced over 30 million carats (6,000 kg) of diamonds from the three Debswana mines. That is about 25% of worldwide production. There has been an agreement with De Beers since 1969. In 2023 a new agreement was made giving the country more of the diamonds - 30% in 2023, 40% from 2028 and 50% from 2033.[18]

Tourism is also important to the country. Many people come to Botswana each year to see its wildlife.

The currency of Botswana is called the pula (which means rain). It is made up of 100 thebe (which means shield). In 2017, one US dollar was about 10.32 pulas.[19]


The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency books by Alexander McCall Smith are set in Botswana. The HBO television series based on the books was filmed in Botswana.



  1. Seabo, Batlang; Kesaobaka, Molebatsi. "Botswana's Dominant Party System" (PDF). Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  2. Benza, Brian (24 October 2019). "Botswana's Masisi retains presidency as BDP wins election". Reuters. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  3. Selolwane, Onalenna (2002). "Monopoly Politikos: How Botswana's Opposition Parties Have Helped Sustain One-Party Dominance". African Sociological Review. 6 (1): 68–90. doi:10.4314/asr.v6i1.23203. JSTOR 24487673.
  4. "Africa :: Botswana – The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2019. {{cite web}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)
  5. "Masisi to Lead Botswana as Khama Steps Down After a Decade". 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  6. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 – Country Report – Botswana (PDF). (Report). United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 2015. p. 9. Total Country Area ('000)ha / 58 173
  7. "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  8. "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "IMF Country Specific Data". Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  10. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  11. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  12. Chapter: 01:04 (20 July 1984). "Interpretation Act 1984 (§40(1))". Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2020. {{cite web}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. "Botswana | South African History Online". Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  14. "History of Botswana | Embassy of the Republic of Botswana in Washington, D.C." Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  15. Morton, Fred (January 1989). "The Birth of Botswana: A History of the Bechuanaland Protectorate from 1910 to 1966". African Economic History – via ResearchGate.
  16. "Africa :: Botswana — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Archived from the original on 2018-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-17. {{cite web}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)
  17. "Botswana diamonds". Know Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  18. Dempsey, Harry; Cotterill, Joseph (2023-07-25). "De Beers prospects blemished after Botswana cuts new diamond deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 2023-07-25.
  19. "XE: Convert USD/BWP. United States Dollar to Botswana Pula". Retrieved 2017-05-17.

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