Muhammad of Ghor
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری) (1149 – March 15, 1206) was sultan of the Ghurid Empire. He ruled from 1173 to 1202 along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad. He also ruled from 1202 to 1206. He was known as Muhammad of Ghor. His birth name was Shihab ad-Din.
|Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad|
|Sultan of the Ghurid Sultanate|
|Reign||1173–1202 (with his brother Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad); |
(1202–1206 as sole ruler)
|Predecessor||Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad|
|Successor||Ghor: Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud (as Emir of Ghor)|
Ghazni: Taj ad-Din Yildiz (as Emir of Ghazni)
Delhi: Qutbu l-Din Aibak (as Sultan of Delhi)
Bengal: Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji (as Sultan of Bengal)
Multan: Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha (as Sultan of Multan)
Ghor, Hazaristan region of present-day Afghanistan
|Died||15 March 1206 (aged 56–57)|
Dhamiak, Jhelum District, Delhi sultanate present-day Pakistan
|Father||Baha al-Din Sam I|
|Religion||Hanafi Sunni Islam (per Minhaj-i-Siraj)|
Mu'izz ad-Din was one of greatest ruler of the Ghurid dynasty. He is also known as founder of Muslim rule in Indian subcontinent. He ruled over a large part of subcontinent, which is now part of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, north India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan.
In 1173 Mu'izz ad-Din took the city of Ghazni from Mahmud of Ghazni which he did to avenge the death of his ancestor Muhammad ibn Suri. He used this city as a base for expansion into northern India. In the meantime, he helped his brother Ghiyath to win over Khwarazmian Empire for the lordship of Khorasan in Western Asia. In 1175, Mu'izz captured Multan from the Ismailis, which were a branch of the Shia Muslims, and also took Uch in 1175. He also occupied the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, which was the last place of safety of his Persianized enemies. After the death of Ghiyath in 1202, he became the successor of the Ghurid Empire and ruled until his assassination near Jhelum by Ismaili assassins in 1206.
After struggle among the remaining Ghuri leaders, Khwarizmi took over the Ghurid Sultanate in about 1215. Though the Ghurid's empire was short, and after them Timurids took over the Ghurid empire. Mu'izz's laid the foundations of Muslim rule in India. Qutbu l-Din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Mu'izz, was the first Sultan of Delhi.
Early life change
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region, which is now Afghanistan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at that time. Mu'izz also had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn, but were later released by their uncle's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad. When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath as their leader, and helped him to took over the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by many Ghurid chiefs during which Mu'izz helped his brother Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.
- Mohammad Habib, Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India: Volume Five - The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). People's Publishing House. p. 150.
- Encyclopedia Iranica, Ghurids, C. Edmund Bosworth, Online Edition 2012, (LINK)
- History of Civilizations of Central Asia, C.E. Bosworth, M.S. Asimov, p. 186.