Transnistria

Russian-occupied territory in Moldova
(Redirected from Pridnestrovie)

Transnistria (also called Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, PMR; Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, romanized: Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika), is a separatist country in Eastern Europe. This means that it claims to be a separate country from Moldova but this is not legally true. Most countries have no diplomatic relations with it.

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

  • Приднестро́вская Молда́вская Респу́блика (Russian)
    Pridnestróvskaya Moldávskaya Respúblika

  • Republica Moldovenească Nistreană  (Romanian)
    Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Moldovan Cyrillic)

  • Придністро́вська Молда́вська Респу́бліка (Ukrainian)
    Prydnistróvska Moldávska Respúblika
Anthem: 
Мы славим тебя, Приднестровье
My slavim tebya, Pridnestrovie
"We Sing the Praises of Transnistria"[2]
Location of Transnistria
StatusUnrecognised state
Capital
and largest city
Tiraspol
46°50′25″N 29°38′36″E / 46.84028°N 29.64333°E / 46.84028; 29.64333
Official languages
Interethnic
language
Russian[3][4][5]
Ethnic groups
(2015)
Demonym(s)
  • Transnistrian
  • Pridnestrovian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Vadim Krasnoselsky
Aleksandr Rozenberg
Alexander Korshunov
LegislatureSupreme Council
Establishment
• Independence from SSR of Moldova declared
2 September 1990
• Independence from Soviet Union declared
25 August 1991
5 November 1991[6]
2 March – 1 July 1992
Area
• Total
4,163 km2 (1,607 sq mi)
• Water (%)
2.35
Population
• September 2023 estimate
Neutral decrease 364,986 (Moldovan estimate)[7]
• 2015 census
Neutral decrease 475,373
• Density
73.5/km2 (190.4/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$1.201 billion[8]
• Per capita
$2,584
CurrencyTransnistrian ruble (PRB)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Calling code+373[a]
  1. ^ +373 5 and +373 2.

Transnistria is the only state to still use the hammer and sickle symbol on its flag.[9]

Russia has a big influence on the territory. Between 1.500 and 2.000 Russian soldiers are stationed on the territory. In addition, there may be up to 10.000 paramilitary troops.

Moldovans, Russians, and Ukrainians make up about a third of the population each. The capital and largest city is Tiraspol.

History

change

The area was part of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union. It was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.

Transnistria was officially formed between 1990, when the Soviet government established the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in that area in hopes that it would remain if Moldova became independent.

Moldova did become independent of the Soviet Union and claimed Transnistria as part of its territory. Transnistria declared independence from Moldova on 2 September 1990.

With the help of the Russian army, it defeated the Moldovan army in the War of Transnistria. There has been peace since 1992, but the Council of Europe calls Transnistria a "frozen conflict" area. Currently, no state recognises Transnistria and most countries agree that it is officially part of Moldova.

Recognition

change

There is argument about whether Transnistria is really a country or not. It is recognized by two partly recognized breakaway countries: Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It was also recognized by the Republic of Artsakh. The area continues to claim independence, and acts independently over its territory with the help of peacekeeping forces from foreign countries. Many countries also think that Transnistria is a puppet state of Russia.[10]

In a vote on 17 September 2006, 97% voted to be free from Moldova. This vote has not been accepted by Moldova, which calls the area the "Territory of the Left Bank of the Dniester".

Geography

change

Transnistria is landlocked and is located between Moldova and Ukraine.

The climate is humid continental with subtropical characteristics. Transnistria has warm summers and cool to cold winters. Precipitation is unvarying all year round, although with a slight increase in the summer months.

Politics

change

Transnistria is a presidential republic, with the President of Transnistria being both the head of state and also shares the position of head of government with the Chairman of the Government.

The legislature is the Supreme Council, which has 43 members. There is disagreement over if elections in Transnistria are free.

Divisions

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Transnistria is divided into five districts and two municipalities. The districts are: Cameca District, Rîbnița District, Dubăsari District, Grigoriopol District and Slobozia District.

The two municipalities are Tiraspol and Bender, although Bender is not actually part of Transnistria's define territory.

References

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  1. "В ПМР российский флаг разрешили использовать наравне с государственным" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 12 April 2017.
  2. Smoltczyk, Alexander (24 April 2014). "Hopes Rise in Transnistria of a Russian Annexation". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 25 November 2018. The breakaway region has its own military, its own constitution, a national anthem (called "We Sing the Praises of Transnistria") and a symphony orchestra which is known abroad.
  3. "On the situation of Russian schools in Moldova". OSCE. 14 July 2011.
  4. "Law of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic on the Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR". U.S. English Foundation Research. 2016. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016.
  5. "Russian language in Moldova could lose their status (Русский язык в Молдове может потерять свой статус)". KORRESPONDENT. 6 April 2013.
  6. The Supreme Soviet changed the official name of the republic from Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on 5 November 1991. See: "Postanovlenie verkhovnogo soveta Pridnestrovskoi Moldavskoi Respubliki ob izmenenii nazvaniia respubliki," Dnestrovskaia pravda, 6 November 1991, 1.
  7. "Aproape 356 mii de locuitori din Regiunea Transnistreană dețin cetățenia Republicii Moldova și aproape 365 mii figurează în registrul de stat al populației". www.gov.md/ro (in Romanian). Guvernul Republicii Moldova (Biroul Politici de Reintegrare). 27 September 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  8. "Макроэкономика: Динамика и структура валового внутреннего продукта в 2021 году [Macroeconomics: Dynamics and structure of GDP in 2021] / Nr.2/249 - pg.3 (2022)" (PDF). www.cbpmr.net. Приднестровский Республиканский Банк [Pridnestrovian Republican Bank]. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  9. "The country that doesn't exist".
  10. Necsutu, Madalin (16 March 2022). "Council of Europe Designates Transnistria 'Russian Occupied Territory'". balkaninsight.com. Balkan Insight. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
Notes
  1. Transnistria adopted a white-blue-red tricolor flag in 2017, which is almost identical to the flag of Russia[1] but with an aspect ratio of 1:2 instead of 2:3.
  2. It is a matter of controversy whether Moldovans are the same as Romanians or a distinct ethnic group.