Supreme Court of the United States

highest court in the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States of America. Because of this, the Court leads the Judicial Branch of the United States Federal Government. It is the only U.S. court established by the United States Constitution. Its decisions are supposed to be followed by all other courts in the United States. The Court meets in its own building in Washington, D.C. However, until 1935, the Supreme Court met in the United States Capitol.

The Roberts Court, 2022
Back row (left to right): Amy Coney Barrett, Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh, and Ketanji Brown Jackson. Front row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Samuel Alito, and Elena Kagan

BackgroundEdit

There are 9 justices on the court now: one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices. Courts (All the justices of the court under one specific Chief Justice) are unofficially named for the Chief Justice; the current Court is called the "Roberts Court" after Chief Justice John Roberts.

The Supreme Court chooses which cases it will decide on. Many people ask the Supreme Court to decide their cases, but the court refuses most of them. For the Supreme Court to decide a case, the case must be about federal law or be about the laws of more than one state. Cases must first be decided by a federal district court and a federal court of appeals or by a state supreme court. Even after that, the Supreme Court can choose not to decide a case for any reason. There are some cases that can start in the Supreme Court and that the Supreme Court must decide, but those are rare.

The justices serve for life unless they want to retire earlier or are impeached. If a justice retires, he or she can still be asked to serve as a judge on a federal Court of Appeals. New justices are nominated (picked) by the President of the United States, and later must be approved by the United States Senate. In February 2022, President Joe Biden nominated Ketanji Brown Jackson to succeed retiring Justice Stephen Breyer. Jackson will become the first female African American Supreme Court justice.[1]

The current CourtEdit

The current court is named "the Roberts Court" named after Chief Justice John Roberts.

Justice /
birthdate and place
Appointed by SCV Age at Start date /
length of service
Previous position or office
(most recent prior to joining the Court)
Replaced
Start Present
  John Roberts
(1955-01-27) January 27, 1955 (age 67)
Buffalo, New York
G. W. Bush 78–22 50 67 September 29, 2005
17 years, 60 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2003–2005) Rehnquist
  Clarence Thomas
(1948-06-23) June 23, 1948 (age 74)
Pin Point, Georgia
G. H. W. Bush 52–48 43 74 October 23, 1991
31 years, 36 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (1990–1991) Marshall
  Samuel Alito
(1950-04-01) April 1, 1950 (age 72)
Trenton, New Jersey
G. W. Bush 58–42 55 72 January 31, 2006
16 years, 301 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (1990–2006) O'Connor
  Sonia Sotomayor
(1954-06-25) June 25, 1954 (age 68)
The Bronx, New York
Obama 68–31 55 68 August 8, 2009
13 years, 112 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1998–2009) Souter
  Elena Kagan
(1960-04-28) April 28, 1960 (age 62)
Manhattan, New York
Obama 63–37 50 62 August 7, 2010
12 years, 113 days
Solicitor General of the United States (2009–2010) Stevens
  Neil Gorsuch
(1967-08-29) August 29, 1967 (age 55)
Denver, Colorado
Trump 54–45 49 55 April 10, 2017
5 years, 232 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (2006–2017) Scalia
  Brett Kavanaugh
(1965-02-12) February 12, 1965 (age 57)
Washington, D.C.
Trump 50–48 53 57 October 6, 2018
4 years, 53 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2006–2018) Kennedy
  Amy Coney Barrett
(1972-01-28) January 28, 1972 (age 50)
New Orleans, Louisiana
Trump 52–48 48 50 October 27, 2020
2 years, 32 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (2017–2020) Ginsburg
  Ketanji Brown Jackson
(1970-09-14) September 14, 1970 (age 52)
Washington, D.C.
Biden 53–47 52 52 June 30, 2022
151 days
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (2021–2022) Breyer
     Source: [2]

Living former justicesEdit

Retired justices of the Supreme Court[2]
Justice
Birthdate and place
Appointed by Retired under Age at Tenure
Start Retirement Present Start date End date Length
  Sandra Day O'Connor
(1930-03-26)March 26, 1930
El Paso, Texas
Reagan G. W. Bush 51 75 92 September 25, 1981 January 31, 2006 24 years, 128 days
  Anthony Kennedy
(1936-07-23)July 23, 1936
Sacramento, California
Reagan Trump 51 82 86 February 18, 1988 July 31, 2018 30 years, 163 days
  David Souter
(1939-09-17)September 17, 1939
Melrose, Massachusetts
G. H. W. Bush Obama 51 69 83 October 9, 1990 June 29, 2009 18 years, 263 days
  Stephen Breyer
(1938-08-15)August 15, 1938
San Francisco, California
Clinton Biden 55 83 84 August 3, 1994 June 30, 2022 27 years, 319 days

ReferencesEdit

  1. Leu, Kristen (2022-02-27). "United States: First black woman judge nominated in Supreme Court". Khaleej Mag - News and Stories from Around the World. Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Current Members". www.supremecourt.gov. Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved October 21, 2018.