1554 was a common year.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1551 1552 1553 – 1554 – 1555 1556 1557|
- January 5 – Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
- February – Thomas Wyatt surrenders to government forces in London.
- February 12 – After claiming the throne of England the previous year, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason alongside her husband.
- March 17 – Princess Elizabeth imprisoned in The Tower.
- April 12 – Mary of Guise becomes Regent of Scotland.
- July 23 – 25 – Wedding of Queen Mary I of England and King Philip of Naples, only son of Emperor Charles V in Winchester, England.
- August 12 – Battle of Renty. French forces led by Francis, Duke of Guise turn back an invasion of Picardy by Charles V.
- The French forces in Siena surrender to the Imperialists after a long siege.
- Mikael Agricola becomes the bishop of Turku.
- Jesuits establish São Paulo in Brazil.