|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1800s 1810s 1820s – 1830s – 1840s 1850s 1860s|
|Years:||1830 1831 1832 – 1833 – 1834 1835 1836|
- January 3 – Britain invades the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
- March 2 – United States President Andrew Jackson signs the Force Act, which authorizes him to use troops to enforce federal law in South Carolina.
- March 4 – Ayya Vaikundar incarnated from the sea of Thiruchendur as the avatar of Kali Yukam.
- June 6 – U.S. President Jackson becomes the first President to ride a train.
- May 11 – French-American farmhand Antoine le Blanc murders family of three.
- September 29 – The infant Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Her uncle Don Carlos, Conde de Molina challenges her claim, beginning the First Carlist War.
- December 14 – The assassination of Kaspar Hauser, who dies three days later on December 17.
- Charles Babbage described his analytical engine. (see also history of computing hardware)
- The dawn of biochemistry: discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, by Anselme Payen.
- The British Parliament passes the Slavery Abolition Act giving all slaves in the British Empire their freedom.
- Heard Island and the McDonald Islands discovered.