Apple Inc.

American multinational technology company based in Cupertino, California
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37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118

Apple Inc
Company typePublic
FoundedApril 1, 1976; 48 years ago (1976-04-01)
Headquarters1 Apple Park Way, Cupertino, California, USA
Number of locations
273 Retail stores in the US and 518 worldwide in 25 countries (2023)
Area served
Key people
RevenueIncrease US$229.234 billion[1] (FY 2017)
Increase US$61.344 billion[1] (FY 2017)
Increase US$48.351 billion[1] (FY 2017)
Total assetsIncrease US$375.319 billion[1] (FY 2017)
Total equityIncrease US$134.047 billion[1] (FY 2017)
Number of employees
450,000 work directly for Apple and 1,530,000 work in Apple stores (April 2023)[1]
Apple Store on Michigan Avenue in Chicago

Apple Inc. is a multinational company that makes personal computers (the Macintoshes), mobile devices (iPod, iPhone and iPad), and software (macOS, iOS, watchOS and tvOS). Apple calls its computers Macintoshes or Macs, and it calls its laptops MacBooks. Their line of mobile music players is called iPod, their smartphone line is called iPhone and their tablet line is called iPad. Apple Inc. used to be called Apple Computer, Inc., but Apple changed their name after introducing the original iPhone.[5]

Apple Inc. is a public company and trades on the NASDAQ under the stock ticker AAPL. On March 19, 2015, it became one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

General history


Apple was started in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.[6] Before they made the company, they sold "blue boxes", which had telephone buttons on them. People could use them to make telephone calls from payphones without paying any money. It did this by pretending to be a telephone operator. The company's first product is now called the Apple I computer. They were almost ready to sell it, but a problem happened. Steve Wozniak was working for the computer company Hewlett-Packard, and the papers that said he could work there said he had to give everything he invented to the company before he could do what he wanted to do with it. He showed the first Apple I to the boss at Hewlett-Packard, but they did not want his computer. Wozniak was then free to do what he wanted to do with the Apple I. It began selling in 1976. In 1977, they made their second computer, called the Apple II, a home computer which later became very successful compared to Apple I.

The Apple logo used from May 17, 1976, to August 26, 1999
The fourth iPod nano

Before the iPhone, the most popular product made by Apple was the iPod.[source?] It was first sold in 2001, and Apple sold over 100 million copies in six years.[7] iPods are used to play music. Recent iPod Touches have a LED screens, can take and show pictures, record, view and edit videos, record word and voice memos, can connect to the Internet for features such as e-mail, and download apps from the App Store. The last iPod Touch, discontinued in 2022, is made with 64-bit architecture.

There are several different types of iPods.

iPod shuffle (4th generation)

  • iPod shuffle 2 GB - This model has no screen. Instead, it has a click wheel to control the music, and is very small. It was the cheapest iPod at the time. People can sync playlists and Genius mixes but apart from that, it has only basic music playback functions, and also has feature called VoiceOver. It comes in five different colors: silver, orange, pink, green, and blue. A polished stainless steel version is available. It can store about 1,000 songs.[8]

iPod nano

  • iPod nano 8 GB - The 8GB could store about 2,000 songs.[8] It was discontinued.
  • iPod nano 16 GB - Comes in space gray, purple, blue, silver, green, yellow, and pink. It can hold about 4,000 songs.[8]

iPod classic

  • iPod classic 160 GB - comes in black or silver. This is the chunkiest and most original looking iPod, but the best music holder. It can hold about 40,000 songs.[9]

iPod touch

  • iPod touch 8 GB - Apple announced the fifth generation iPod Touch in 2012, equipping it with a front and rear facing camera, a better display, a better processor for faster performance, and it has a thin new design. It can also run the latest operating system, iOS 9. This makes it a lot closer to the iPhone 5. The 8GB model is discontinued.
  • iPod touch 16 GB - has a multi-touch screen and looks much like the iPhone. It can be used to view high quality media and to use the Internet, using built-in Wi-fi. Some say it is like an iPhone without the phone. This model can hold about 4,000 songs, but was discontinued in September 2009, and was now put up again to replace the 8 GB in June 2013.
  • iPod touch 32 GB - This model can hold about 7,000 songs. It first went on sale in February 2008.[10]
  • iPod touch 64 GB - This model can hold about 14,000 songs.[10] It first went on sale in September 2009.



The red iPod shuffle, iPod nano, and iPod touch models, and a few more products, are part of the "(PRODUCT) RED" program. This means that some of the profits from these iPods goes to the Global Fund to fight AIDS in Africa.[11]



Apple also makes computers. Newer computers by Apple run the OS X operating system, which is included with the Mac.


  • MacBook (very skinny and light laptop designed for average users, discontinued)[12]
  • MacBook Pro (more powerful and fast laptop designed for professional users)[13]
  • MacBook Air (Skinny and light laptop, less expensive than MacBook, but does not include a Retina display option which the Macbook did. After the Macbook was discontinued the Air got the Retina display.)[14]


  • Mac Mini (a tiny, but fully functional computer that does not come with its own monitor, keyboard, or mouse. Used mainly for home and school)[15]
  • iMac (a computer where everything is built in behind the screen, designed for many uses, such as home, school, and professional (i.e.: Photoshop) use)[16]
  • Mac Pro (a very powerful, fast computer that does not come with its own monitor, for professional people who need fast computers, i.e. movie editing)[17]
  • Mac Studio (more powerful than the Mac Pro)



Apple also makes software for their computers. Some of the software that Apple makes is:

  • iLife (a set of programs designed for everyday use) contains iMovie, a program for making movies, GarageBand, a program for making music, iPhoto, a program for organizing photos, iTunes, a program for organizing (and buying) music, iWeb (not sold or updated any more), a program for making web pages, and iDVD (also no longer sold or updated), a program to make DVDs. These programs are considered very simple to use.[18]
  • iWork (a set of programs for office work) contains Pages, a program for making documents and Keynote, a program for making slideshows, and "Numbers" for making spreadsheets.[19] These apps are available on Apple Mac computers, iPhones, iPads and iPod Touchs.
  • Professional program to make movies called Final Cut Pro, a program for music making called Soundtrack Pro, Motion, a program for high-quality moving graphics authorship, and DVD Studio Pro, a program used to make professional DVDs.[20]
  • Final Cut Express (a set of programs similar to Final Cut Pro, but simplified and cheaper)[21]
  • Aperture (for professional photographers to edit their photos, no longer supported or updated)[22]
  • Logic Studio (a set of programs where professionals can edit and produce audio)[23]
  • Logic Express (a set of programs similar to Logic Studio, but simplified and cheaper)[23]

Most computer users use Microsoft Windows, the rival to Mac OS X. About 10% of computer users use Apple's Mac OS. It is not legal to run Apple's Mac OS X on a Windows computer. However, it is allowed to run Windows on modern Macintosh computers. Even though Apple makes their computers to run Mac OS X, they also make software that allows you to install Windows. This software is called Boot Camp.

Mobile devices


Apple is perhaps most famous for its mobile devices, which are small computers that are easy to carry around. They have touchscreens with multi-touch technology instead of a separate keyboard and mouse. Most of these products run an operating system called iOS. It is very similar to the Android software made by Google. iOS can do a lot of different things, and it does so by running "apps", which are programs similar to those on a PC. Users can download and buy more apps for their device from Apple's App Store.



The iPhone is a mobile phone that can be used to make calls, send text messages, play games and music, show photos and videos (like an iPod), browse the Internet, and do much more. It was one of the first smartphones in the world when the first version was announced in 2007.[24] Apple makes and sells a different model every year, with new models being faster and more powerful and having a newer version of iOS than those that come before them. The newest iPhones released are the iPhone 15 and the iPhone 15 Pro which run on iOS 17. Many cellular carriers around the world sell iPhones, including Sprint, Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile in the US.

The iPad is a tablet computer, similar to the iPhone and iPod Touch but with a much larger display - while a typical iPhone has a screen about 4 to 5 inches in size, iPads have screens from 8 to 12 inches big. The first iPad was introduced in 2010 and along with the iPhone, new and better models are made and sold every year. A new iPad will ship with the latest iPad OS software if it is supported.

Apple Watch


The Apple Watch is an example of "wearable technology", because it is worn around the wrist in the same way as a traditional wristwatch. However, it is much more than a wristwatch. It not only tells the time and date but also tracks the fitness of the person wearing it and monitors the person's health. It can also do many of the same things that an iPhone can do, such as use Apple's Siri personal assistant, but it needs to be "paired" with an iPhone for it to do these things, meaning that it will not work if you do not have an iPhone. The Apple Watch has many different designs: there is the standard version, a "Sport" version designed for athletes, and an "Edition" version which is made as a fashion product. These all run "watchOS", a modified version of iOS.

Apple TV


The Apple TV is a box that plugs into a TV. It can connect wirelessly to any computer that has the Apple program iTunes on it. The Apple TV can play music and show photos or videos from iTunes on the TV. Like other Apple products, Apple TV is regularly updated with new software and features. The most recent version comes with a new remote control and includes the Siri voice assistant. It uses tvOS, a TV version of iOS.



Following several campaigns (for example, Green my Apple[25]), Apple has made their products better for the environment. Previously, the MacBook line removed various toxins including arsenic, beryllium, and lead,[26] as well as improvements to the products' battery life and recharge cycles. Apple products used to ship with chargers and EarPods, but recently Apple has removed the chargers and EarPods from the boxes of most of their products to make the packaging smaller. Apple says they did this to make it easier to make and save resources and energy.


  • The MacBook uses a power efficient CPU, M1, and has a power-efficient Retina display, and is slimmer than previous models.
  • The MacBook, MacBook Pro, and MacBook Air have highly recyclable aluminium and glass enclosures, mercury-free displays and arsenic-free display glass. The printed circuit boards, electrical components, mechanical parts, and internal cables are BFR-free and PVC-free.[27]
  • The MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, and the LED Cinema Display contain energy-efficient LED display technology. The MacBook LED-backlit display uses 30% less power compared to conventional CCFL-backlit displays.[27]
  • Sleep-mode energy usage has decreased 93% between the first-generation and current-generation iMac. This is due to improvements in CPU power management and increased hardware efficiency.[28]
  • Between the fourth-generation iPod nano and the first-generation iPod nano, the packaging is 32% lighter and uses 54% less volume.[29]
  • Apple products are compliant with the European Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment, also known as the RoHS directive. Examples of materials restricted by RoHS include lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and PBB and PBDE flame retardants. Apple met many of the RoHS requirements long before the July 2006 deadline.[30]
  • Starting from the iPhone 12, iPhone 12 Pro and Apple Watch Series 6, Apple products stopped shipping with charging blocks and EarPods as an incentive for users to reuse previous accessories.


  • 1977–1981: Michael Scott
  • 1981–1983: Mike Markkula
  • 1983–1993: John Sculley
  • 1993–1996: Michael Spindler
  • 1996–1997: Gil Amelio
  • 1997–2011: Steve Jobs (Interim CEO 1997–2000)
  • 2004, 2009, 2011–present: Tim Cook (Acting CEO during Steve Jobs' health issues; replaced Steve Jobs after he resigned)



As of October 26, 2019 the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc.[31]





Since the formation of the Apple Computer Company in 1977, Apple has employed over 95,000 people worldwide. The majority of Apple's employees have been in the United States but Apple has substantial manufacturing, sales, marketing, and support organizations worldwide, with some engineering operations in Paris and Tokyo.

Apple employees include employees of companies Apple owns, and less important, but still relevant companies such as FileMaker Inc. and Braeburn Capital.



Apple Corps has sued Apple Inc. many times for trademark infringement. In the first case, Apple Inc. agreed not to go into the music industry. Apple Corps believes this agreement was broken when Apple Inc. launched the iTunes Store, Apple's online music store.

The two companies had trouble in the past, over the use of the Apple name. They made a deal that Apple Computer would not act as a music company. When Apple Computer Inc. began to sell their iPod, and set up their iTunes music store, Apple Corps believed they had broken their agreement, and took them to court. Apple Computer won the case, but the two companies later worked out a new deal. This deal now means that the Beatles music is now on the iTunes store, whereas it was not there before. Apple Computer Inc. was then renamed as Apple Inc. because of its mobile technology business. Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, Inc., has said in the past that he loves music from The Beatles, which can be considered to be very ironic.[32]

  • Pixar, an animation studio founded by Steve Jobs, one of the founders of Apple


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