Gulf War

1990–1991 war between Iraq and American-led coalition forces

The Persian Gulf War, sometimes just called the Gulf War, was a conflict between Iraq and 34 other countries, led by the United States. It started with the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq on August 2, 1990. Iraq had long claimed Kuwait as part of its territory. The war ended the following spring when Iraq's armies were defeated. There were two military operations.

Persian Gulf War
WarGulf photobox.jpg
DateAugust 2, 1990 – February 28, 1991

Coalition victory

 United States
 Saudi Arabia
 United Kingdom
 United Arab Emirates
 South Korea
 New Zealand
Iraq Ba'athist Iraq
Commanders and leaders
United States Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. Iraq Saddam Hussein
956,600, including 700,000 US troops[1][2] 650,000 soldiers
Casualties and losses

292 killed (147 killed by enemy action, 145 non-hostile deaths)
467 wounded in action
776 wounded[3]
31 Tanks destroyed/disabled[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]
32 Bradley IFVs destroyed/damaged
1 M113 APC destroyed
2 British Warrior APCs destroyed
1 Artillery Piece destroyed
75 Aircraft destroyed[14]
4,200 killed
12,000 captured
≈200 tanks destroyed/captured
850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured 57 aircraft lost
At least 8 aircraft captured (Mirage F1s)

17 ships sunk, 6 captured[15]
75,000+ wounded[3]
80,000 captured[16]
3,300 tanks destroyed[16]
2,100 APCs destroyed[16]
2,200 Artillery Pieces destroyed[16]
110 Aircraft destroyed[14]
137 Aircraft escaped to Iran[14]
19 naval ships sunk, 6 damaged[14]

Operation Desert Shield brought troops to protect Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states that Iraq had not attacked.

Operation Desert Storm attacked Iraq's forces both in Kuwait and in Iraq. It started on 17 January, 1991 with an air strike. Ground operations started 24 February. Iraqi forces set fire to oil wells to slow the attack.The war ended on 28 February, 1991 with a ceasefire.[17]

The long Iran–Iraq War had ended in August 1988. Iraq owed a great amount of money to Saudi Arabia and had difficulty paying it back. Saddam Hussein declared the neighboring country of Kuwait to be siphoning Iraqi crude oil from across the border, and on August 2nd, 1990 the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait started. On January 17, 1991 the US began the Persian Gulf War with a massive US led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm.[18]

The attacks were assisted by newly developed weapons, including stealth aircraft, cruise missiles and smart bombs.

After 42 days of fighting U.S. President Bush declared a ceasefire on February 28. By that time most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled.

Operation Desert storm included a bombing campaign that targeted Iraqi aircraft, anti-aircraft systems, oil refineries, weapon factories, bridges, and roads. The war was a lopsided victory for coalition forces. President George Bush decided not to depose Saddam Houssein.

Political issues after Operation Desert Storm lead to the second Persian Gulf War in 2003.

metal disk with words and an eagle
Medal for United States personnel.

Related pagesEdit


  1. Gulf War coalition forces (latest available) by country "". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2007-09-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. Hersh, Seymour (2005). Chain of Command. Penguin Books. p. 181.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Persian Gulf War". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
  4. 18 M1 Abrams, 11 M60, 2 AMX-30
  5. CheckPoint, Ludovic Monnerat -. "Guerre du Golfe : le dernier combat de la division Tawakalna".
  6. Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
  7. Halberstadt 1991. p. 35
  8. Atkinson, Rick. Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3
  9. Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, Knights In the Desert. Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
  10. Malory, Marcia. "Tanks During the First Gulf War – Tank History". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  11. M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen & David Isby
  12. "TAB H – Friendly-fire Incidents". Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  13. NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". US General Accounting Office, 10 January 1992. Quote: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Pike, John. "Operation Desert Storm". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  15. Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990 (Air War). Retrieved on 12 June 2011
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Bourque P.455
  17. Brinkerhoff, John R.; Silva, Ted; Seitz, John (1992-05-18). "United States Army Reserve in Operation Desert Storm. Engineer Support at Echelons Above Corps: The 416th Engineer Command". Fort Belvoir, VA. doi:10.21236/ada277638. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. Lopes, Maraisa (2009). Folha de S. Paulo (Thesis). Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Repositorio Institucional. doi:10.47749/t/unicamp.2009.442545.